In my country, climate knowledge in the city location, functional layout and housing construction can be traced back to 3,000 years ago . Climate and urban planning, in the vast and long river of history, have been accompanied by, and born, it has created a magnificent scene that has great beauty in the world. Time varies, social progress, especially in the rolling wave of industrial civilization, strong technology, “ignorant”, climate gradually neglected in urban planning and architectural design. The contradiction between people and the environment is constantly appearing, and the urban environment has become a determinant that restricts the sustainable development of cities. Today, we propose the sustainable development of the Chinese nation of ecological civilization, climate and urban planning, and turn to the peak loop, and then renew .
From the perspective of archaeological excavation, why the building sites are generally unearthed in the towns, and the area is better than the geographical environment such as mountain borrowing. ? Because there is no air conditioning and central heating, people choose to build a city pool, build villages, and the house will naturally consider how to use the existing Tiannian conditions to maximize the advantages of natural, and create disasters. , Convenient, even a comfortable living environment. Pillow mountain, ring water, and Xiangyang’s natural view are fully applied to the location of the city, and the construction of the natural environment is reflected in the construction of the natural environment .
This ideology that adapts to the natural environment is consistent in the construction, if detailed interpretation, it will find many scientific truths. The housing is advocating to advocate south of the construction of the basic principles of construction. Due to the north of China, the housing in the north of China can get more light, bringing many benefits to the healthy development of the human body; at the same time, the airport of the building Open in the southeastern part of the Oriental, so that the wind blows into the room and adjusts the room temperature. After the mountain water, there is a mountain after the house, there is a blessed water in front of the house, and there is also a scientific basis. That is, China is located in the north hemisphere. It can make the cold winter wind (northwest wind) is blocked by the mountain, and the water can make the summer wind (Southeast Monsoon and Southwestern monsoon brings cool and moist air through the water in front of the house to achieve the purpose of adjusting the temperature of the site, forming a good microcanopause .
Due to science and technology, the climate has not yet formed a science, and it is more unable to explain climate knowledge from the perspective of geophysics, explaining climate phenomena, but the ancients of wisdom have experience andThe awe of awareness, knowing that this unseneful “qi” determines harmony, with indisparable dependencies with the Yingcheng , from a modern perspective, is the climate and urban planning.
Climate and urban planning construction is the relationship between complement. As a natural resource, the climate is an important carrier of the city, and the planning and design of a city is based on the local climate environment; and the changes in human activities and lower cushions, and the layout of the building group. They will have different degrees of impact on urban climate environments, thereby changing urban bureaus, affecting the wind environment and thermal environment of the city.
3. High-intensity urban construction on climate
Although the ancients are limited to scientific and technological levels, they pay attention to the natural concept of “the heavens and people”. my country’s ancient urban forms follow local climatic conditions, terrain resources, and build a lot of distinctive urban pattern. Nowadays, technology development has created modern civilization. People use technical means to conquer natural, use natural, transformation nature, and use the intensive spread of urban construction, unordered the urban construction, fast replication, and spirituality, but ignore Self-textive, which is different from natural conditions, leading to thousands of times .
More serious is that disorderly, excessive urban construction broke nature constraints, and a large number of artificial buildings replaced the original natural underwarters, causing significant changes in the climate in urban bureaus to make the city The climate comfort is significantly reduced. For example, urban high-density construction and heat sources emissions in human activities have enabled urban air temperature than around the suburbs of the surrounding suburbs, forming “urban heat island”; the buzzer of the squamous squat increases the roughness of the cube surface of the city, reducing the average of the city The wind speed, thereby reducing the air flow efficiency within the city, further strengthening the strength of the heat island, slowing the diffusion of pollutants, and the city people can only “shake hard, self-suction” under the climate conditions of the vicious circle; in addition, the city Most of the surface is concrete, the permeability water storage capacity is weak, so that the water circulation in urban areas is different, and it is easy to hang in the urban rainfall in shortcoming, “watching the sea boating” has become a true portrayal when China’s urban rainstorm occurs. These climate environmental issues caused by urban construction, ultimately affect people’s livelihood and sustainable development of the city.
4. Regain Climate AdaptabilityPlanning
How to meet the needs of urban expansion, and mitigate and even avoid construction of urban climate issues, this is the “key issue” faced by urban planning research in my country. Urban construction and its results are often difficult to reverse, we must hold more cautious attitudes, which makes urban construction more forward-looking and preventive sex . Therefore, in the urban planning construction, you should fully consider the local climate environment background, respect nature, comply with nature, build climate adaptability, and improve urban disaster prevention and mitigation toughness, actively adapt to climate change ability, and create an ecology Having a sustainable urban environment.
To make “urban planning construction, climate assessment first” becomes a consensus, this requires barriers to different disciplines and industries, meteorologists need to launch frequent, fully exchange discussions, in different scales The planning and its various stages should be evaluated, and the feasibility is demonstrated. Whether it is the overall planning or controlled detailed planning, or the street cell and individual building planning design, the climate environmental impact is scientifically evaluated, give quantitative results and response strategies, providing support for urban planning, functional district, environmental protection, etc. Ensure optimizing urban planning layout.
Taking the city form as an example, due to the close relationship between urban form and local small climate, the urban form affects the distribution and intensity of urban heat island, affects urban diffusion capacity, affects the land of the bureau, so the city The shape cannot be artificially expanded, and the urban planning requires “gas-shaped”, optimized green space, wetlands site selection and design according to climatic conditions. Taking a sponge city as an example, the core mission is to improve the penetration, savings, purification, utilization and emission capability of precipitation; only the average water can reduce the average water, drizzle, how to reduce, the later plan, design, Construction can be scientific and reasonable, and the entire system can play a role, and the real “sponge” function can be realized.
5. For the urban amount of body temperature, the urban construction is like the texture of the nature, even if nature itself has purification, regulatory ability, and excessive development will eventually exceed its bearing boundaries It will slowly heal more than the skin smaller, but if it is a large area of burns, if it is not treated, the skin will inflammation and ulce. At present, the climate environmental problem arising from the city is to signal people, and the heat island effect indicates the city.Burning, quiet and weak wind indicates that the city’s breathing is not smooth, and the rainstorm shows that the urban digestion is not good.
In order to alleviate, improved and even the urban climate brought by the urban climate, the Beijing Climate Center joint relevant agencies have set up the “urban climate assessment and innovation team”, integrating the wisdom of the sage, learn from international experience. Combined with modern technology, advocate and promote the concept of urban planning based on climate adaptability and the ecological environment; promote climate assessment into urban development plan, consider local climate environments in the whole process of urban planning, avoiding or mitigating the implementation of planning projects Affected by meteorological disasters and climate change, as well as negative feedback on the local climate.
In the past decade, the team integrates climatology, urban planning, ecology and other disciplines, and gives full play to meteorological observation, climate analysis, numerical simulation, urban planning, remote sensing, and geographic information. Advantages of technology, for urban heat island, urban ventilation, heavy rain, etc., forming scientific quantitative urban climate effect assessment technology systems, effectively promoting innovation of urban planning technology in my country, and applied in numerous urban planning in China, for my country Urban Planning Actively Adair to Ecological Civilization Construction Creation Create a new entry point, which has effectively guaranteed urban ecological and sustainable development, which has produced significant ecological and environmental benefits.
6. Creating a breathing city
“Urban Ventilation Corridor” is a topic in urban planning in urban planning, and its planning technology is one of the main research results of the team. . Urban construction and human activities have produced a large number of heat sources. At the same time, the intensive buildings have weakened the air circulation capacity in the city. The heat is constantly produced, but the air dirt is not effective in exchange, so that the city is slightly formed to form a vicious circle. At this time, the concept of constructing a city ventilation corridor is born, but it has also triggered the misreading of the public “blowing fog”, in fact, in fact, solving the roasting of smog is the governance of the pollution source, and cannot be sent to the original.
What is “urban ventilation corridor”? The team gives an interpretation: urban ventilation corridor refers to the initial climate analysis, combined with urban land and layout in the plan, such as natural ventilation in the city, such as rivers, lakes, valleys, and Artificially established green space, water body, and city main road, the purpose is to enhance urban air fluidity and promoteSuburban air exchange, thereby playing the role of easeing urban heat island, reducing building energy consumption, improving urban lifetime  .
Through scientific, reasonable planning ventilation corridor system, the lack of slabs and ecological functions of urban build land can be prevented, which is beneficial to maintain the development of soil and animal and plant ecosystems; Land protection, connect, to ensure the land useful to improve the climatic conditions of the city bureau, to the beginning of planning, legally protective and construction; finally integrate water, green, fresh air into an ecological network, enhance the overall transceiver of the city Sexual and climate comfort.
The urban ventilation corridor system is like a leaf, and it is independent, and it is a system. It is a system, there is a multi-level integration, the first-class “ventilation”, the secondary “air-to-air”, three levels ” String. From the urban landscape, the main direction of the leaves is the first-class ventilation corridor, complying with the local dominant wind direction, mainly playing the wind, introducing the fresh air of the lake in the lake in the city into the city. In the city, the wind is like a leaf conteyl, and the wind is better introduced into various groups inside the city. It plays a fluid-fluidity to prevent urban heat island, and the use of “slabs”; to the city design level, through the block Reserved leaf vein texture such as reasonable layout, architectural displacement, so that fresh air can benefit more.
How to build a city’s ventilation corridor? The team has formed a more mature technical system: first, where is the wind, this needs to analyze the local annual dominant, season wind, mountain valley wind, water, and the wind, where is the wind, that is, the city wind environment Evaluate the heat environment, understand the urban small wind zone and the hot island gathering area; finally look for urban context, identifies the strip-shaped area in the city through the ventilation potential assessment technology, combined with urban planning layout, and build a reasonable ventilation corridor Connect the city’s ecological cold sources, run through urban small wind zones and heat island districts; in order to enhance local air circulation, divide urban heat island, prevent heat island exacerbating and continuous development.
The team is clearly stated that the ventilation corridor is constructed is not a big demolition. The ventilation corridor is based on respect for the city’s existing pattern, and it is delineated in terms of local conditions. In response to the existing ventilation and environment of the city, it is necessary to protect and repair; the area of the ventilation corridor will be kept to maintain space, reserve and increase ecological land, control construction scale, building height, density, and exclusiveThe key node that is not conducive to corridors, combined with urban functional discovery and comprehensive management, gradually updated.
. Urban VentiLation Corridor Planning in Beijing
. Beijing Central City ventilation corridor planning plan  in the latest “Beijing City Master Plan (2016-2035),” Beijing The central urban ventilation corridor plan “is included in the 24th graph (see Fig. 1
), this is also a result of two years of results crystallization. Through the comprehensive assessment of Beijing wind, hot environment, ventilation potential, and numerical simulation and field observations for representative regions, verify the improvement of the local meteorological environment; and multiple times and planning department, eventually in the center of Beijing The urban area has been delineated 5 levels of ventilation corridors and more than 10 secondary ventilated corridors . The landing implementation of research results is undoubtedly inspiring, which indicates that climate assessment is recognized in urban planning, adopted, and will further inherit and develop in the future.
Fund Project National Key Research Development Program (2018YFB1502801), Beijing Science and Technology Plan (Z161100002716028), Beijing Meteorological Bureau Science and Technology Project (BMBKJ201901011) and Beijing Meteorological Bureau “new era The hierarchical technology innovation talent program is jointly funded. Notes
Zeng Zhongzhong. Ancient China based on climate adaptability City Morphology [J] .China University of Science and Technology, 2011 (7): 15-20.