Regional aggregate morphology and evolutionary characteristics is an important aspect of environmental archaeological and archaeological research, which can provide a new perspective for exploration and interpretation of the mechanism of interaction of human culture and natural environment. With the rapid development of spatial information technology with the “3S” as the core, its advantages in the prehistoric colors are gradually recognized, and they are widely used in prehistoric aging research. At present, relevant students at home and abroad have carried out a large number of research, and there are many research in the evolution of aggregation. Study on the Evolution of China Stone Times in South Africa in South Africa . Cui’s prehistoric gathering in the West Laugu River Basin and the prehistoric gathering in the Wen Tui . The prehistoric episode of the Gaogong River in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River . Lu Peng’s premistical settlement mode in Huan Lushan area , etc. Since GIS technology has functions such as geographic information data acquisition, data management, spatial analysis, and attribute analysis, geographic information visualization, currently widely used in land resources, transportation, statistics, public security, urban planning and other fields and sectors . GIS technology has a unique advantage for the storage and retrieval of archaeological space data, and the difficulty of studying the commonality of various types of regions and the determination of different settles of aggregate in a wide range of regions. The GIS technology application is of great significance in the research of agglomeration. Using GIS technology more research on aggregation, such as Ma Yingqing  using GIS spatial analysis technology and digital elevation model, research on spatial distribution characteristics of Luoyang City’s prehistoric gathering site. Zhou Jinyan  uses GIS technology to successfully carry out the application demonstration of the prehistoric aging database of Huan Lushan. Li Ning  uses GIS technology to perform time and space distribution research on the late gathering site of China’s middle new stone. However, there are few similar research on Shandong’s prehistoric capture. Shandong’s prehistoric distribution is large, the era continues, and includes many early tapes, and the distribution density of these cities is rare at home and abroad. Therefore, Shandong has become an ideal place for the research and evolution of aggregation distribution. However, the current research on the characteristics and evolution of the region mainly include Ding Min , Guo Yuanyuan , and the research and analysis of the entire Shandong region, especially the research and analysis of the entire Shandong area. Technical assembly distributionThe research on state and evolution is still less, and it is urgent to wait.
2.1. Research Natural Overview
Shandong Province is located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the central part of the district is high, and the central is Lu Dongnan. Hilly, Northwest is North China Plain. The zone is the temperate season, and the coastal areas are affected by the ocean, which is a strong temperate seasonal weather. This area is suitable, rich in resources, and since ancient times, it is a good place for human reproduction.
2.2. The prestige of prehistoric cultural development
Shandong area is part of the Hainai cultural area in the cultural area. Haiji cultural district is an important region of ancient cultural development in China, and is also an important region of the origin and development of Chinese civilization. In recent decades, the archaeological research in the district has made great progress. This area basically establishes a relatively continuous new stone era cultural development context, namely, Li Culture (8500 ~ 7500 A BP) – Beiqing Culture (7400 ~ 6300 A BP) – Darvie Culture (6300 ~ 4600 A BP) – Longshan Culture (4600 ~ 4000 A BP) – Yue Shi Culture (3900 ~ 3500 A BP).
3. Research Method
According to the information information provided by “China Cultural Relics Atlas · Shandong Value” in recent years, the archaeological site is excavated, and the Shandong Neoline Age will be different cultural period in Excel. (Mainly after Li Culture, Bei Xin Culture, Dagukou Culture, Longshan Culture and Yue Shi Culture) Added Site Data for details, establishing Shandong Prehistical Site Database by registration, digitization and information entry in ArcGIS, and respectively After the establishment, Li Culture, Beiqing Culture, Daguangkou Culture, Longshan Culture and Yue Shi Cultural Site Database. Download Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data from the geospatial data cloud website (http://www.gscloud.cn/home), and synthesize DEM data in Shandong Province, in the ArcGIS 10.2.2 software environment, will share Shandong DEM data and The site is stacked to obtain an altitude and space distribution characteristics of the analysis site and the regularity of the analysis site. Using the ExtractVALUESTOPOINTS tool extraction siteAltitude elevation data analyzes the elevational changes in cultural sites distribution in different periods.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Shandong New Stone Age Site Stacking Characteristics and Cultural Inheritance Model
Cultural layer accumulation of the cultural layer of the monk age archaeological site is two Class: One type is a single type of cultural accumulation, referred to as a single site; the other type is a site containing different types of cultural accumulation, called a stacked ruins . Through a single type, a stacked archaeological site statistically conducted by 16 jurisdictions in Shandong Province (see
), the result indicates that the site is mainly manifested in a single type. In the statistical site, a single site has a total of 1642, accounting for 80.69%, a stacked site 393, accounting for 19.31%. In the four urban urban urban urban urban urban urban districts in the Luzhongnan area, the number of repages of 724, accounting for 35.58% of the total number of Shandong’s total number of sites, and the number of stacked reasons, accounting for the total number of stacked sites in Shandong. 34.10%. The number of the number of reasons in the four urban urban urban districts in Luxi North is 127, accounting for 6.24% of the total number of Shandong’s total regulations, and the number of stacked reasons, accounting for the total number of stacked sites in Shandong. 8.14%.
From the above analysis, the cultural development of Neolithic Times in Shandong is relatively continuous, but cultural inheritance shows different characteristics in different regions. There are more laminated sites in Luzhongnan, and cultural inheritance is a continuous and relatively stable inheritance mode. The number of stacked sites in Rubsini is the least, and it is interrupted, discontinuous, non-stable mode, that is, after the previous cultural recession, the new culture has been raised in this manner. This difference in cultural inheritance mode is related to the difference in stability of the regional structure background and the natural geographic environment.
. Statistics of site type in shandong area Table 1 . Shandong area statistics
Shandong Region Prehostallic Neolithic Site The number of sites is numerous, and there is a significant number of changes, see
Table 2 The number of sites in the resequence of Li Culture is at least 9, and there are 9 sites, and the frequency is smaller. The number of reasons per killed is 9. The number of sites accounts for 0.36% of the total number of requarities of the entire Neolithic Times, which can be considered as a germination phase. The number of sites in the Northern Culture period increased to 107, and the number of sites per millennium was 97, the number of sites in this period accounting for 4.31%. The number of sites in the Darvie Cultural Times has increased significantly, reaching 555, an increase of 326 per kilnime, accounting for 22.33%, indicating the continued development of culture. Longshan culture is the top period of Shandong’s prehistoric cultural development. The number of sites is up to 1505, accounting as high as 60.56%, and the number of reasons per killed is 2508, which can be seen as the peak stage of cultural development. The number of sites in Yue Shi cultural period was drastically attenuated to 309, and the site accounted for only 12.43%, the number of requarities per kilnown area was 773, and the level of cultural development was significantly declined in comparable levels of cultural development.
In general, the trend of changes in the number of sites in Shandong New Stone Ages is increased – rapid increase – Reduce. Among them, the rapid increase in Dharma, Longshan cultural period, and decreased in the period of Yue Shi culture. 4.2.2. Shandong regional spatial distribution characteristics Added site selection and natural environmental conditions, production basic conditions closely related. Humans always tend to be flat, climate, sufficient water source, which is conducive to disaster prevention locations .
After the distribution of Li Culture ruins showed centralized, 9 sitesCentrally distributed in the North of the Rusheng Tilanti mountain, the rush, the flood platform, and the site is near the river and other water source (
Figure 1 (b)), two concentrations of the North Xin culture site in the Hollympio area of the Endong Peninsula Distribution area. In this period, Jiaodong Peninsula has gradually forms white stone cultural type , and the number of sites has increased significantly, in which Yantai and Weihai’s sites increased to 54 sites and 24, respectively, and there were fresh sites in the northwestern plain. The spread of the cultural sites of Dalukou is more obvious, and the expansion to the Luzhongnan is the most significant (
(C)). According to statistics, the number of the cultural sites in Dadukou in Linyi City is as high as 116. In addition, the altitude of the site distribution is further reduced. During the Longshan Cultural Period, the number of sites in the site was increased, and the distribution range expanded to the entire region (
(D)), and the previous stage is not used by people to use low altitude allumelands and rushing The sea plain area has also begun to be widely used. According to statistics, the altitude of the altitude is 1095 in the range of 0 to 100 m. Yue Shi cultural period site distribution scope is significantly contracted, and the reel density is reduced, and the scattered distribution is in the study zone (
Fig. 1 (E)). The reduction in the number of sites in the plain area of elevation is most prone to flourishing disasters is the most obvious. Figure 1 . Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Neolithic Sites in Shandong Province . Shandong Xinshi Times Cultural Site Temporal and Spatial Distribution Environmental Evolution on Temporal and Spatial Changes in Shandong Prehistoric Site The distribution of aggregates and evolutions are closely related to the environmental evolution of the region. Ancient environment in the study areaThe results of the study   showed that the new weather changes showed early warming, the medium-term warm and humidity, gradually changed in the later stage, where the most warm stage is 7000 ~ 5000, 5000A BP climate environments Exhibits a cool trend, and there is a significant cooling event before and after 4000 A BP   . The research area is located in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The rivers in the lower Yellow River have had several changes. The northern part of the study area is close to the Bohai and Huanghai. During the new world, the coastline has undergone several times, especially the new world invasion, the coastline once The land is pushing tens of kilometers . The environmental changes during the study area have had a significant impact on the development of regional culture. 8000 ~ 5000A BP climate warm and humid, superior hydrothermal resources, rich natural resources, after Li Culture, Bei Xin culture, Daguang cultural development provides a good condition, the continuous development of Neolithic culture, the number of sites gradually increase . Affected by the new seas, the sea level is rising, the coastal area of the terrain in the study area is submerged by the seawater, and therefore the nematic early mid-term ruins are mostly a relatively high elevation fans or territory. The climate develops in the cool direction but is still more appropriate, the coastline continues to retreat, the plain area of large terrain is more suitable for agricultural production, and the Longshan culture has gains flourishing, Longshan Culture The number of gathering sites during the cultural period showed an explosive growth, and the earliest city-State countries may have appeared. However, the obvious cooling incident, which is about 4,000 years, and the increasingly frequent flood disaster and frequent tribes, jointly leading to the decline of the late Dragon Mountain Culture, and the Yue Shi Culture is in the number of sites and On the scale, it is still significantly behind the Longshan culture on the productivity level.
2) The quantity and time and space distribution of the prehistoric site of Shandong show a certain regularity, new stoneAfter the early days of the early stage, the number of requarities in the Northern Culture period was scarce, concentrated in the floodstand floor of the North of the Taishan Mountain, the altitude elevation is relatively high; the number of requarities in the cultural period of Daguang has significant increase, and the distribution range is east , The number of sites in the South of Longshan Cultural Times has increased significantly, and the distribution range is expanded to the entire area, especially in the low-altitude plain area site distribution intensive; Yue Shi culture period has a sharp decline in the number of sites, and the distribution ranges to high altitude. 3) The relatively appropriate climate environment in the middle of the new world has promoted the sustainable development of the culture. On the new World Types of coastlines, the nematic early mid-term cultural ruins is limited to a relatively high altitude, with the retreat of the late coastline of the new world, the segmental elevation range is significantly reduced. The flood disasters such as 4 kA have led to the flood disasters such as flood disasters such as Yue Shi culture in the area.
This study was affected by provincial college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship training programs (project name: Based on GIS, Shandong prehistoric distribution form and evolutionary research, project number: S202010452120) funded. Notes
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