Separation study of pleat bacteria

1. Introduction

Parcus Entoloma (Fr.) P. Kumm. It was established by Kummer in 1871, belonging to the Basidiomycota, Hymenomycet, Umbrella (AgaricaS) ), EntolomataceAe. As the second major belongings of the umbrella, the sputum is a large species, the distribution range is wide, from the alpine mountain to the basin, from the cold belt to the tropical distribution of sputum species. Entoloma’s fungal morphological characteristics are highly variable, and within the sub-classification problem has been controversial, Noordeloos [1] and Romagnesi et al. Believe that spores should be observed from all angles to the fungi that exhibits angles in ENTOLOMA SL, and established under subordinate Subordinates, other scholars Largent and Baroni et al. Further divide the Pleasant Entoloma SL into multiple independent genus. This paper uses the view of Noordeloos and Romagnesi et al., Reviewing the research process of Entoloma, and accumulate the theoretical basis for Entoloma’s research.

2. The study value of Pads

The number of spine is a variety of sputum, because the morphological structure of the species is special, complicated, and has a higher in food and medical. The economic value is as follows:

1 Some of the fungi fungi in the fungus is an important edible bacteria, taste delicious, such as the eloquory Pleascus Entoloma Abortivum (Berk. & Ma Curtis) DONK [2], egg yolk Balline Pleated Entoloma Saundersii (Fr.) SACC., Rough Hand Pleasant Entoloma Sarcopum Nagas. [3], Cone Falls Pleifier Entoloma Turbidum (fr.) Quél. [2] [3].

2 Pleasant colony species has a medicinal value in addition to consumption value, such as the eloquin of Pell, Entoloma Abortivum (Berk. & M.a. Curtis) DONK, Crystal Crystalline Pleaton ENTOLOMA CLYPEATUM (L.) P. Kumm. It has the effects of inhibiting tumors, and some fungi is used in anti-cancer or experimental anti-cancer, such as poisonous Paroma Sinuatum

(BULL.) P. Kumm [4] [5].

3 Some fungi in the pleat bacteria have food value, and there are some inexperitive venom mushrooms, and the varicity of poecs in different ecological environments is large, causing people to eat poisoning incidents often occur. Such as European Entolomar Hodopolium (Fr.) Kummer and delicious edible fungi Clitopilus prunulus Morphological characteristics, it is easy to cause people to eat poisoning [6] [7]; That is toxic powder

Entoloma sinuatum

(bull.) P. Kumm. With the rough hand pleats Entoloma Sarcopum Nagas. Macroscopic morphology, often cause adult and child death due to death [7]; common venom mushrooms also have Entoloma Nidorosum Fr.) Qual., Mercury pump ENTOLOMA OMIENSE (HONGO) E. Horak et al. 3. The morphology and distribution of pleats The fungal morphological characteristics of the pleats is high, but the spores of the pleats are all observed from any angle. This is the main feature of the fungus of the pleats in the fungi from other umbrellas. Pleasant bacteria species in global distribution, but mainly in tropical and subtropical. This species has a variety of living habits, most of the pink colon live in a humid grass; the harmful land; in a humus or dark woodland; individual powder camps are parasitic on other mushrooms, such as Entoloma paraSericeum [1]; Pleasant pumps are grown underground, such as Entoloma Prismaticum [1]. 4. Research Method of Pleasant

Traditional classification is difficult to meet the highly changed ENTOLOMA of Entoloma, and the application of molecular methods is ENTOLoma’s research provides new channels, with the combination of molecular tools and morphology, making the study of ENTOLOMA to be more in-depth. The study method of Pleascus will be described below from morphology and molecular system development.

4.1. Morphological study

The morphological study of pleats is basically similar to most of the research methods of most umbrella, before collecting the original habitat, record specimen, and survive Environment and other information and record specimen numbers, acquisition time, and location. The macroscopic feature of the indoor recording sub-solid size shape, color, odor, no color change occurs after injury, and 55 ° C for 12 hours after completion of the recording, and the dried specimen seal is stored. The microbial Entoloma microscopic characteristics were carried out in 5% KOH, 1% Congo red, distilled water and Melze reagent. Distilled water is mainly used for observation of intracellular pigment or sporoids or the like (the pigment is easily dissolved in the KOH solution), and the Melzer’s Reagent is used to detect whether the spore wall of spores is an iodine reaction. Bulk and spores In a 5% KOH reagent, a 100-fold oil mirror was measured, and 20 sets of data were measured for each sub-entity burden and spores. Spore measurement of the length and width of the side view, the length measures the length of the umbilical protrusion to its farthest angle, the width measurement and the length of the length, the measured value does not include umbilical processes, calculate Q and Q (Q) according to the measured value It is the meaning of the length and width of spores, and q indicates the average Q value ± standard deviation of all spores; the length of the burr is measured the length of the first partition of the base to the base, the width is the value of the widest, and the stalk is not included Measurement range. In addition to the burden and spore outer cycle, lock-shaped combination, bacterial capillary type, cover mycelium width, and microfibers, etc., the microfibers, etc., are important morphological features that identify fungal fungi fungi.

4.2. Molecular System Development Research

With the continuous popularization of molecular technology, molecular system development analysis is from the formation of pink coli. The important role in the emphasis is mainly focused on the development of ENTOLOMA unit system [8] [9], or combined with morphology of ENTOLOMA subordinate classification [10] [11] [12]. Eukaryotic bio-ribosome RDNA is very different in terms of growth, and the pleats are divided intoSubmystem development is commonly used in ITS, RPB2, LSU, MTSSU [13] [14] [15] gene fragment, and molecular system development analysis in recent years is often used in system development analysis.

5. Pattuffal Studies

5.1. Establishment of Pattuff

1753 Linneo found and describe the mushroom underground species agaricus ClyPeatum, ie Crystal capsina Crypeatum, which is the earliest understanding of Pleascus species. In 1821, FRIS [16] established the 20021, including Leptonia, Nolanea, Eccilia and Mouceron four divided classes; FRIS, FRIS has established a powder-style TRIBUS Entoloma; 1870 Smith established a mushroom Tribus Claudopus Kummer enhanced Entoloma, Leptonia, Nolaanea, Eccilia, and Claudopus in 1871; 1886 Quelét established a genus rhodophyllus, which was gerbeled, with pleats Entoloma, concave umbrella Eccilia, hunter umbrella Nolanea, the mushroom Claudopus and the small fetus Leptoina, but the name RHODOPHYLUS does not meet the international plant nomenclature, according to the method, the merged names will be selected from the existing name [17], 1949 DONK Select


instead of Rhodophyllus Bus as a merged name; During the pediced genus, French fungi taxonomer Romangensi re-established the classification system according to the morphological characteristics of Padsia [ 18], a significant contribution to the study of subsequent pectuffy. Later, as the new species of Pads bacteria were constantly reported, one of the subordinates were proposed or combined, and the identification characteristics of the Eceta subordinate of the pinta were constantly modified.There is still a problem in the subclassification.

5.2. Foreign research profile

European and Americas research history has a long history, published more monographs, the study of EntolomataceAe, Pleasant bacteria Defining the definition of the subordinus and the germ agents and the inner system development, there is still a new type of new species in Europe and the United States today; European and American divisions are in Africa, Oceania and other places About Pleasant Studies is also comparative system, such as Noordeloos et al. To the Australian Tasmanian Islands and the African Seychelles in the Seychelles [19] [20]; in Asian countries, India’s new powder in recent years The study of Pleasis is relatively rapidly, reporting a new species of a lot of pleats [21] [22] [23], but the system is still not formed.

5.3. Domestic research overview

China territory is vast, latitude and latitude span, geographical characteristics are different, the climate is different, and the fungi diversity is rich. my country’s research is relatively late, which can be roughly divided into three stages:

1 In the early stage: my country’s research on Pleasant Pleasants can be traced back to Zhejiang in Zhejiang, 1932. ENTOLOMA SALMONEUM (PECK) SACC. Then, more and more collegeders have been reported in various professional journals and local fungi, including [25] [26] [27] [28] [28] [26] [27] [28] [29].

2 Development Stage: Prior to 2008 my country’s research is only limited to new species, and has not achieved a big breakthrough, since 2008, Li Chuanhua [30] [31], He Xiaolan The et al. [13] combined with the research results of the pink bacteria, the in-depth study of the system was started, which laid the foundation for the classification and research of the late Pleasant bacteria.

3 Mature Stage: As Molecular Biology Technology In the continuous application of pink cream classification and system development, my country has achieved a large breakthrough in the classification and system development of pleats. [11 ] [32].

5.4. Progress in Pattuffa

In recent yearsThe genus system development analysis and the inner classification of Pleasters have achieved better progress. In terms of system development analysis: The gear problem of early Pink Pleasters is mainly based on morphological research, and there is always controversy. In 2009, Co-David et al. [8] uses three gene fragments to perform pleatsmia System development analysis solves the property relationship between the internal parts of the pleats. Based on system development, Rhodogaster genus is incorporated into the Entoloma genus. The evolutionary analysis of combined spores has proved that Entoloma is a single system, and the pink cream is proposed. Keep a highly variable high. In 2011, Baroni and Matheny [9] further confirmed the conclusions of Co-David et al. In the belongings: 1 2012 Noordeloos and Gates [19] According to the results of Co-David et al. Suggests that rhodopolium-group can be considered a subgroup, 2015 Kokkonen [12] uses molecular system development analysis to make Section Rhodopolia SECTIONS Polita and Pseudonolanea is placed in Entoloma Subgenus Rhodopolia (Fr.) Noordel. EX Kokkonen, Comb. & Stat. Nov. Research, which defines the morphological classification feature of Rhodopolia subordinates. 2 2014 VILA [33], combined with morphology and molecular system development analysis, new classification group Entoloma Rusticoides-Group, which considers that the classification group includes Entoloma Rusticoide and its related species in Claudopus subordinates, and preliminarily exploring Claudopus subordinates. With


Rusticoides-group; 2019 He Xiaolan [11] and others use four gene fragments to rebuild the molecular system development analysis of pleats, showing the traditional sense of Claudopus subordinates. Rusticoides-group is a single system,And separated from Claudopus.

6. Prospects of Pattuffas Studies

The number of fungi fungi in powder is more than 1,000, the morphological characteristics change, and the same species has morphological characteristics in different ecological environments. Very big difference, which makes the identification of species and the determination of the inner position. With the rapid development of molecular technology, the study of Pleascus is increasing, and the ITS gene fragment can solve the problem of genetic fragments such as RPB2, which can solve most of the subordinate classification problems, but From a dialectical point of view, the current pink category is still existent, and the results of traditional morphological classification and system development analysis cannot be completely consistent; many researchers have more biased the use of molecular tools when they are classified, and their identification results The correctness is still to be further verified, how to better combine morphology and molecular tools still need to explore. I believe that with the development of science and technology and the combination of various methods, the study of Pleascus will be more systematic and more perfect.



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