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1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.1Frozen electron microscope single particle image recognition based on bilateral filtering and limited Bolzman machine
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/frozen-electron-microscope-single-particle-image-recognition-based-on-bilateral-filtering-and-limited-bolzman-machine/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/frozen-electron-microscope-single-particle-image-recognition-based-on-bilateral-filtering-and-limited-bolzman-machine/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:31 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/frozen-electron-microscope-single-particle-image-recognition-based-on-bilateral-filtering-and-limited-bolzman-machine/1. Introduction
Cryo-EM (Cryogenic Electron Microscopy) is one of the most important research methods of current structural biology. Compared to the traditional X-ray crystallographic (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) with the complexity requirements of the biomolecular sample, the frozen electron microscope technology provides a simpler, intuitive way, making many crystals. Difficult protein molecular structure is analyzed, this major scientific breakthrough, and therefore won the 2017 Nobel Chemical Award [1] [2] [3]. Since 2013, a Ph.D. has analyzed a transient receptor potential ion channel (TRPV1) structure of a near-atomic resolution of 3.4 å, in recent years, many scientists have solved a large number of super High resolution biological macromolecule [4] [5] [6], quickly promoted the development of structural biology. Since the biological sample is usually low-dose imaging, but the electron microscope data noise is complex, even if the data collected by direct electronic camera DDD (Direct Detector Device Camera), the signal to noise ratio is often very low, and each biological macromolecular structure is The reconstruction requires a large number of high-quality two-dimensional single-particle freezing electron microscopy, and therefore, the collection of images often requires experienced researchers for a long time. [1]. In order to solve this problem, scientists have developed a variety of automated procedures for image screening [7] [8] [9] [10], where the British Mrc Laboratory of Molecular Biology Sjrs Schereres and its team developed Relion The AUTO PICK semi-automatic single particle selection is widely used as the AUTO PICK semi-automatic single particle selected by artificial selection as a training sample [11], and the automatic single-automated single-segmentation of the Zhang et al. ZHANG et al. Zhang et al. The selection program Pixer also reached the same good effect as Relion [12]. With the continuous maturity of machine learning technology, scientists have developed a variety of artificial intelligence technology.Single particle image recognition [13] [14] [15], but for a cryo-electroless electron microscope image, the accuracy of single particle image recognition is still low. In response to the above problems, this paper uses a method of combining limited Bolzmann Machine and bilateral filter BF (Bilateral Filter), by optimizing the quality of single particle images, and realizing automation classification to improve two-dimensional The identification efficiency of a single particle image also provides a new idea for the screening of subsequent refrigerated electron microscopic single particles.
2. Method and Principle
2.1. Frozen electron microscope single particle image pretreatment
2.1.1. Bilateral filtering
Freezing electron microscope single particle image usually Characteristics of low signal-to-noise ratio [16] (
Limited Bolzman is a model based on energy-minimized state design, including a visible layer and a hidden The layer is contained, and there is a characteristic of the lamination, and the interlayer is fully connected. The visual layer is usually a data input layer, and the implicit layer can be considered as a feature extraction layer. The training objective of the entire network is to make the network parameters stabilize, ie the minimum system energy is minimized [20]. When we use images as a training sample, each pixel point of the image corresponds to a unit of the restricted Bolzmann network-visual layer, and the unit of the hidden layer can be considered a visible layer input unit. Abstract features, connection visibility and implicit layers are weight matrices. The numerical solution of the weight matrix is to transmit a large number of input samples forward and reverse conducting multiple iterations through the network, and utilize the calculation results between each iteration.The difference is corrected until the reconstruction error of the entire network tends to be smooth (see
Fig. 3 . Supervisory Limited Bolzmann Data Classification Process
Restricted Bolzmann networks can achieve identification and classification of images through supervision learning or non-supervision learning. The network convergence of supervisory learning is faster and the calculation results are also more accurate. The principle is to add a label unit in the input unit (see
Fig. 3 ), when calculating the network convergence, consider the state in which the entire network energy under different labels, also That is, the category corresponding to different tags. After the network training is completed, each input a new sample image can be obtained separately according to the label, and when the entire network energy is the lowest, this sample can be submitted to the corresponding label according to the network calculation result, thereby achieving supervision The classification function of learning [21]. In order to improve the identification accuracy of the data, this paper intends to train the neural network in a multi-label supervision study, with a small amount of confidence, a small amount of confidence, and realizes a false positive or impurity image in a freezing electron microscope single particle image. The elimination, thereby increasing the accuracy of the three-dimensional model to build the data required [22] [23].
_{ 3.2. Identification of the simulated SPCas9 protein single particle image }
Considering the signal-to-noise ratio of the actual refrigerated electron microscope single particle image may be lower, for testing Bolzmann network recognition accuracy in different signal-to-noise comparison, we selected different signal-to-noise ratio single-grained SPCas9 protein simulation structural projection images and blank noise images under equivalent conditions as training set, then equivalent quantity The analog data is tested as a test set (see
Table 1
) to verify the effectiveness of this method, the method of generating the analog image is the same as 3.1. We get the following data:
Table 1
. Identification Accuracy of Simulate SPCAS9 and NOISE DATA Under Different SnR
. The recognition accuracy of simulation of single-particles and noise under different signal-to-noise ratio
. (A) Simulated Single Particles 0.0625 to 0.0078; (B Preprocessed Simulate Single Particl(123)
. (a) analog single-grained SPCas9 single particle projection image, signal-to-noise ratio from 0.0625 to 0.0078; (B) pretreated analog single particles SPCas9 single particle projection image, signal-to-noise ratio from 0.0625 to 0.0078
3.3. Removal receptor potential ion channel protein type V member 1 refrigeration electron microscope Single particle identification and three-dimensional rectification
After RBM network identificationAfter classification, 32,403 positive single particle results were obtained. Since Relion could not use a single-selection single particle image to be reconstructed, we use the CryosParc platform [24] two-dimensional classification function for further screening, and like we only choose two The first 20 classes with a high reliability in dimensions (see
(b)) A total of 23636 single-grain images were three-dimensional reconstructed, and finally a three-dimensional density map of about 3.63 å (see
Fig. 7
).
Figure 6
. (A) TOP 20 HIGHEST Degree of Confidence Of 2D Classes of TRPV1 SINGLE PARTICLE Image By Cryosparc; (B) Probability Histogram of Best 2D Classes of Single Particles; (C) Distributions of Projection Angles of Trpv1 Single Particles
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. Changes in the number of prehistoric sites in shandong province . Shandong prehistoric reasons change
In general, the trend of changes in the number of sites in Shandong New Stone Ages is increased – rapid increase – Reduce. Among them, the rapid increase in Dharma, Longshan cultural period, and decreased in the period of Yue Shi culture. 4.2.2. Shandong regional spatial distribution characteristics Added site selection and natural environmental conditions, production basic conditions closely related. Humans always tend to be flat, climate, sufficient water source, which is conducive to disaster prevention locations [11].
After the distribution of Li Culture ruins showed centralized, 9 sitesCentrally distributed in the North of the Rusheng Tilanti mountain, the rush, the flood platform, and the site is near the river and other water source (
(C)). According to statistics, the number of the cultural sites in Dadukou in Linyi City is as high as 116. In addition, the altitude of the site distribution is further reduced. During the Longshan Cultural Period, the number of sites in the site was increased, and the distribution range expanded to the entire region (
Fig. 1
(D)), and the previous stage is not used by people to use low altitude allumelands and rushing The sea plain area has also begun to be widely used. According to statistics, the altitude of the altitude is 1095 in the range of 0 to 100 m. Yue Shi cultural period site distribution scope is significantly contracted, and the reel density is reduced, and the scattered distribution is in the study zone (
1) Shandong Prehistoric Neolithic Site Store is mainly manifested as a single type, but different region inheritance model has significant differences, and the ruins of Luzhongnan are intensive and mostly overlapped type The site, cultural inheritance is shown in a continuous and relatively stable mode, and the Rubei region is the opposite, an intermittent and unstable cultural inheritance mode.
2) The quantity and time and space distribution of the prehistoric site of Shandong show a certain regularity, new stoneAfter the early days of the early stage, the number of requarities in the Northern Culture period was scarce, concentrated in the floodstand floor of the North of the Taishan Mountain, the altitude elevation is relatively high; the number of requarities in the cultural period of Daguang has significant increase, and the distribution range is east , The number of sites in the South of Longshan Cultural Times has increased significantly, and the distribution range is expanded to the entire area, especially in the low-altitude plain area site distribution intensive; Yue Shi culture period has a sharp decline in the number of sites, and the distribution ranges to high altitude. 3) The relatively appropriate climate environment in the middle of the new world has promoted the sustainable development of the culture. On the new World Types of coastlines, the nematic early mid-term cultural ruins is limited to a relatively high altitude, with the retreat of the late coastline of the new world, the segmental elevation range is significantly reduced. The flood disasters such as 4 kA have led to the flood disasters such as flood disasters such as Yue Shi culture in the area.
WADLEY, L., Sievers, C., Bamford, M., et al. (2011) Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patnerns At Sibudu, South Africa. Science, 334, 1388-1391.
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Yao Tian, Zhao Qiang, Qian Xiuhong, Zou Chunhui, Gao Qian. Analysis of Temporal Spatial Distribution and Drive Factor of Polytechnic Site in Shandong Province [J] .Journal of Jinan University (Natural Science Edition) ), 2019, 33 (6): 556-563.
Zou Chunhui, Zhao Qiang, Mao Lujiang. New World Environment Evolution in the Eastern Gully Lake Carten Sediments in the Eastern Trend of Lubei Plain [J]. Ancient Geography, 2020, 22 (6): 1209-1220.
]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/research-on-formation-forms-and-evolution-of-shandong-prehistoric-population-based-on-gis/feed/0Separation study of pleat bacteria
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/separation-study-of-pleat-bacteria/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/separation-study-of-pleat-bacteria/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:30 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/separation-study-of-pleat-bacteria/1. Introduction
Parcus Entoloma (Fr.) P. Kumm. It was established by Kummer in 1871, belonging to the Basidiomycota, Hymenomycet, Umbrella (AgaricaS) ), EntolomataceAe. As the second major belongings of the umbrella, the sputum is a large species, the distribution range is wide, from the alpine mountain to the basin, from the cold belt to the tropical distribution of sputum species. Entoloma’s fungal morphological characteristics are highly variable, and within the sub-classification problem has been controversial, Noordeloos [1] and Romagnesi et al. Believe that spores should be observed from all angles to the fungi that exhibits angles in ENTOLOMA SL, and established under subordinate Subordinates, other scholars Largent and Baroni et al. Further divide the Pleasant Entoloma SL into multiple independent genus. This paper uses the view of Noordeloos and Romagnesi et al., Reviewing the research process of Entoloma, and accumulate the theoretical basis for Entoloma’s research.
2. The study value of Pads
The number of spine is a variety of sputum, because the morphological structure of the species is special, complicated, and has a higher in food and medical. The economic value is as follows:
1 Some of the fungi fungi in the fungus is an important edible bacteria, taste delicious, such as the eloquory Pleascus Entoloma Abortivum (Berk. & Ma Curtis) DONK [2], egg yolk Balline Pleated Entoloma Saundersii (Fr.) SACC., Rough Hand Pleasant Entoloma Sarcopum Nagas. [3], Cone Falls Pleifier Entoloma Turbidum (fr.) Quél. [2] [3].
2 Pleasant colony species has a medicinal value in addition to consumption value, such as the eloquin of Pell, Entoloma Abortivum (Berk. & M.a. Curtis) DONK, Crystal Crystalline Pleaton ENTOLOMA CLYPEATUM (L.) P. Kumm. It has the effects of inhibiting tumors, and some fungi is used in anti-cancer or experimental anti-cancer, such as poisonous Paroma Sinuatum
(BULL.) P. Kumm [4] [5].
3 Some fungi in the pleat bacteria have food value, and there are some inexperitive venom mushrooms, and the varicity of poecs in different ecological environments is large, causing people to eat poisoning incidents often occur. Such as European Entolomar Hodopolium (Fr.) Kummer and delicious edible fungi Clitopilus prunulus Morphological characteristics, it is easy to cause people to eat poisoning [6] [7]; That is toxic powder
Entoloma sinuatum
(bull.) P. Kumm. With the rough hand pleats Entoloma Sarcopum Nagas. Macroscopic morphology, often cause adult and child death due to death [7]; common venom mushrooms also have Entoloma Nidorosum Fr.) Qual., Mercury pump ENTOLOMA OMIENSE (HONGO) E. Horak et al. 3. The morphology and distribution of pleats The fungal morphological characteristics of the pleats is high, but the spores of the pleats are all observed from any angle. This is the main feature of the fungus of the pleats in the fungi from other umbrellas. Pleasant bacteria species in global distribution, but mainly in tropical and subtropical. This species has a variety of living habits, most of the pink colon live in a humid grass; the harmful land; in a humus or dark woodland; individual powder camps are parasitic on other mushrooms, such as Entoloma paraSericeum [1]; Pleasant pumps are grown underground, such as Entoloma Prismaticum [1]. 4. Research Method of Pleasant
Traditional classification is difficult to meet the highly changed ENTOLOMA of Entoloma, and the application of molecular methods is ENTOLoma’s research provides new channels, with the combination of molecular tools and morphology, making the study of ENTOLOMA to be more in-depth. The study method of Pleascus will be described below from morphology and molecular system development.
4.1. Morphological study
The morphological study of pleats is basically similar to most of the research methods of most umbrella, before collecting the original habitat, record specimen, and survive Environment and other information and record specimen numbers, acquisition time, and location. The macroscopic feature of the indoor recording sub-solid size shape, color, odor, no color change occurs after injury, and 55 ° C for 12 hours after completion of the recording, and the dried specimen seal is stored. The microbial Entoloma microscopic characteristics were carried out in 5% KOH, 1% Congo red, distilled water and Melze reagent. Distilled water is mainly used for observation of intracellular pigment or sporoids or the like (the pigment is easily dissolved in the KOH solution), and the Melzer’s Reagent is used to detect whether the spore wall of spores is an iodine reaction. Bulk and spores In a 5% KOH reagent, a 100-fold oil mirror was measured, and 20 sets of data were measured for each sub-entity burden and spores. Spore measurement of the length and width of the side view, the length measures the length of the umbilical protrusion to its farthest angle, the width measurement and the length of the length, the measured value does not include umbilical processes, calculate Q and Q (Q) according to the measured value It is the meaning of the length and width of spores, and q indicates the average Q value ± standard deviation of all spores; the length of the burr is measured the length of the first partition of the base to the base, the width is the value of the widest, and the stalk is not included Measurement range. In addition to the burden and spore outer cycle, lock-shaped combination, bacterial capillary type, cover mycelium width, and microfibers, etc., the microfibers, etc., are important morphological features that identify fungal fungi fungi.
4.2. Molecular System Development Research
With the continuous popularization of molecular technology, molecular system development analysis is from the formation of pink coli. The important role in the emphasis is mainly focused on the development of ENTOLOMA unit system [8] [9], or combined with morphology of ENTOLOMA subordinate classification [10] [11] [12]. Eukaryotic bio-ribosome RDNA is very different in terms of growth, and the pleats are divided intoSubmystem development is commonly used in ITS, RPB2, LSU, MTSSU [13] [14] [15] gene fragment, and molecular system development analysis in recent years is often used in system development analysis.
5. Pattuffal Studies
5.1. Establishment of Pattuff
1753 Linneo found and describe the mushroom underground species agaricus ClyPeatum, ie Crystal capsina Crypeatum, which is the earliest understanding of Pleascus species. In 1821, FRIS [16] established the 20021, including Leptonia, Nolanea, Eccilia and Mouceron four divided classes; FRIS, FRIS has established a powder-style TRIBUS Entoloma; 1870 Smith established a mushroom Tribus Claudopus Kummer enhanced Entoloma, Leptonia, Nolaanea, Eccilia, and Claudopus in 1871; 1886 Quelét established a genus rhodophyllus, which was gerbeled, with pleats Entoloma, concave umbrella Eccilia, hunter umbrella Nolanea, the mushroom Claudopus and the small fetus Leptoina, but the name RHODOPHYLUS does not meet the international plant nomenclature, according to the method, the merged names will be selected from the existing name [17], 1949 DONK Select
Entoloma
instead of Rhodophyllus Bus as a merged name; During the pediced genus, French fungi taxonomer Romangensi re-established the classification system according to the morphological characteristics of Padsia [ 18], a significant contribution to the study of subsequent pectuffy. Later, as the new species of Pads bacteria were constantly reported, one of the subordinates were proposed or combined, and the identification characteristics of the Eceta subordinate of the pinta were constantly modified.There is still a problem in the subclassification.
5.2. Foreign research profile
European and Americas research history has a long history, published more monographs, the study of EntolomataceAe, Pleasant bacteria Defining the definition of the subordinus and the germ agents and the inner system development, there is still a new type of new species in Europe and the United States today; European and American divisions are in Africa, Oceania and other places About Pleasant Studies is also comparative system, such as Noordeloos et al. To the Australian Tasmanian Islands and the African Seychelles in the Seychelles [19] [20]; in Asian countries, India’s new powder in recent years The study of Pleasis is relatively rapidly, reporting a new species of a lot of pleats [21] [22] [23], but the system is still not formed.
5.3. Domestic research overview
China territory is vast, latitude and latitude span, geographical characteristics are different, the climate is different, and the fungi diversity is rich. my country’s research is relatively late, which can be roughly divided into three stages:
1 In the early stage: my country’s research on Pleasant Pleasants can be traced back to Zhejiang in Zhejiang, 1932. ENTOLOMA SALMONEUM (PECK) SACC. Then, more and more collegeders have been reported in various professional journals and local fungi, including [25] [26] [27] [28] [28] [26] [27] [28] [29].
2 Development Stage: Prior to 2008 my country’s research is only limited to new species, and has not achieved a big breakthrough, since 2008, Li Chuanhua [30] [31], He Xiaolan The et al. [13] combined with the research results of the pink bacteria, the in-depth study of the system was started, which laid the foundation for the classification and research of the late Pleasant bacteria.
3 Mature Stage: As Molecular Biology Technology In the continuous application of pink cream classification and system development, my country has achieved a large breakthrough in the classification and system development of pleats. [11 ] [32].
5.4. Progress in Pattuffa
In recent yearsThe genus system development analysis and the inner classification of Pleasters have achieved better progress. In terms of system development analysis: The gear problem of early Pink Pleasters is mainly based on morphological research, and there is always controversy. In 2009, Co-David et al. [8] uses three gene fragments to perform pleatsmia System development analysis solves the property relationship between the internal parts of the pleats. Based on system development, Rhodogaster genus is incorporated into the Entoloma genus. The evolutionary analysis of combined spores has proved that Entoloma is a single system, and the pink cream is proposed. Keep a highly variable high. In 2011, Baroni and Matheny [9] further confirmed the conclusions of Co-David et al. In the belongings: 1 2012 Noordeloos and Gates [19] According to the results of Co-David et al. Suggests that rhodopolium-group can be considered a subgroup, 2015 Kokkonen [12] uses molecular system development analysis to make Section Rhodopolia SECTIONS Polita and Pseudonolanea is placed in Entoloma Subgenus Rhodopolia (Fr.) Noordel. EX Kokkonen, Comb. & Stat. Nov. Research, which defines the morphological classification feature of Rhodopolia subordinates. 2 2014 VILA [33], combined with morphology and molecular system development analysis, new classification group Entoloma Rusticoides-Group, which considers that the classification group includes Entoloma Rusticoide and its related species in Claudopus subordinates, and preliminarily exploring Claudopus subordinates. With
Entoloma
Rusticoides-group; 2019 He Xiaolan [11] and others use four gene fragments to rebuild the molecular system development analysis of pleats, showing the traditional sense of Claudopus subordinates. Rusticoides-group is a single system,And separated from Claudopus.
6. Prospects of Pattuffas Studies
The number of fungi fungi in powder is more than 1,000, the morphological characteristics change, and the same species has morphological characteristics in different ecological environments. Very big difference, which makes the identification of species and the determination of the inner position. With the rapid development of molecular technology, the study of Pleascus is increasing, and the ITS gene fragment can solve the problem of genetic fragments such as RPB2, which can solve most of the subordinate classification problems, but From a dialectical point of view, the current pink category is still existent, and the results of traditional morphological classification and system development analysis cannot be completely consistent; many researchers have more biased the use of molecular tools when they are classified, and their identification results The correctness is still to be further verified, how to better combine morphology and molecular tools still need to explore. I believe that with the development of science and technology and the combination of various methods, the study of Pleascus will be more systematic and more perfect.
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Osmundson, TW, Vincent, A., Robert, et al. (2013) Filling Gaps in Biodiversity Knowledge for Macrofungi: Contributions and assessment of an Herbarium Collection DNA Barcode Sequencing Project. Plos One, 8, E62419.
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https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/separation-study-of-pleat-bacteria/feed/0Optimization of urban settlement monitoring scheme based on hierarchical analysis
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/optimization-of-urban-settlement-monitoring-scheme-based-on-hierarchical-analysis/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/optimization-of-urban-settlement-monitoring-scheme-based-on-hierarchical-analysis/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:30 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/optimization-of-urban-settlement-monitoring-scheme-based-on-hierarchical-analysis/1. Introduction
With the continuous development of social economy, the footsteps of urbanization have gradually accelerated, and the number of urban populations is increasing. People have increased sharply to urban material resources, the most typical is over-exploitation of urban groundwater. It has caused the surface of the surface to segmentation, which seriously affects the sustainable development of the city. It can be seen that the sedimentary monitoring of urban surfaces is significant. [1] [2].
Currently, urban terrestrial settlement observation and application have a wide range of methods with traditional level measurement and GPS static monitoring. The advantages and disadvantages of the above two methods are also obvious [3] [4] [5]. Traditional level measurements are used for settlement observations with high measurement accuracy, easy to observe equipment, and simple work data processing, but in large-scale urban terrestrial settlement monitoring, China and foreign works is large and cost-effective [6] [7] [8] . GPS monitoring has high degree of automation, all-weather monitoring, but the instrument is relatively expensive and the satellite signal is largely interfered with external factors [9] [10] [11] [12]. An excellent settlement monitoring program not only has to be technically safe and reliable, but also needs to consider many elements such as economic and environment, which has both energy-quantitative elements, and some factors are difficult to quantify, so they need to practice according to expert practice. Personal experience gives reasonable choice. However, existing sinking observation programs in the existing expert qualitative analysis will choose to be large and subjective, and it is difficult to provide scientific reference for decision makers.
Accordingly, this paper proposes a preferred method of urban settlement monitoring scheme based on hierarchical analysis, and gives the influencing factors of monitoring work in different programs, and constructs urban ground settlement monitoring hierarchical model and corresponding knowledge according to expert experience. Judgment matrix, finally consistency with the results of the results of the results as the result of MATLAB, resulting in the weight of different urban terrestrial monitoring programs, and becomes a final program preferred decision basis.
Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP first transforms the target layer into different hierarchies , Use mathematical matrix analysis and solve evaluation index [13] [14] [15][16]. According to the basic steps of large area settlement monitoring, the influencing factors of sedimentation monitoring are analyzed from the measurement accuracy, the plan budget, the selection network, the measurement error and the data processing, and the urban settlement monitoring based on hierarchical model is constructed. Scheme, as shown in
Rule layer A mainly includes five factors. Among them, the measurement accuracy is a key influencing factor for the selection of settlement observation programs; the economic cost involved in the program budget is an important factor affecting the entire settlement monitoring project, mainly including measuring instruments, measurement personnel, and working days, so the plan is also required. Considering economic and savings; data processing affects the time of the entire monitoring scheme, the data processing difference between different programs is large, mainly considering baseline decisions and pulse difference calculations; selecting point network for GPS monitoring and level measurement The requirements are inconsistent, so it is also incorporated in consideration; the measurement error is similar to the measurement accuracy, and it is also an important influencing factor for program selection. Due to the relatively complexity of large area settling monitoring, the original rule layer branch is given a sub-standard layer B, and more accurate and objective analysis results can be obtained by adding more influencing factors. Among them, the program budget can be divided into instrument costs, the number of personnel, the number of days required to complete the entire settlement monitoring plan; the measurement error is generally homogenous, the three impact factors: the equipment itself, various external factors Error and human generated error.
2.2. Based on expert experience Construction Judgment Matrix
After determining the membership relationship between the target layer, the rule layer, and the decision layer, it is necessary to construct a judgment matrix for the target. During the judgment matrix structure, in order to make the influence, this paper is based on expert experience, this articleReference 1 to 9 Scales Methods The influencing factors were two-two comparisons [16] [17], as shown in
Table 1
. 1 indicates that the two factors have the same importance, and 3, 5, 7, 9 indicate that the two factors are slightly, obvious, strong, extremely important than the latter, respectively, and the remaining numbers are expressed as the intermediate value.
11 12 22 ⋯ N ⋯ A ⋮ ⋮ A N A N ⋱ ⋮ N 2.3. Level Single Sorting and Consistency Inspection Weight W Representation The degree of size in the hierarchical order, separately: W , ⋯ , W , the specific solution process is as follows: First, the influence factor in the determination matrix A is normalized by column. As shown in formula (1): A i J i J σ N
A (1) A i J Normalized vector,
A
I J shows the elements in the determination matrix. Second, it will be normalized J i , as shown in formula (2): W i σ J = 1 i J Then, the newly obtained
W Vector normalized treatment can be obtained W i , as shown in formula (3): W i = W [12 σ J = N W i
W The characteristic vector of the finding is based on this formula (4) to calculate the maximum feature root λ MAX . λ MAX = = 1 N A W
N W i wherein A represents a determination matrix, n represents a dimension of the matrix, on this, based on this The formula (5) performs a consistency test indicator CI calculation.
C = λ – N – [ 1 Simultaneous consistency index Ri specific values such as Table 2 Is shown. Table 2 . Ri Values Table 2 . Ri value C R = R i
(6) As shown in Equation (6), Cr represents a consistency ratio. When it is worth 0.1 hours, it is generally considered to be reasonable. 2.4. Total Sorting and Consistency Test The overall sorting of the hierarchy is used to determine the process of certain layers of elements relative to the overall objective importance. Specifically, equation (7) can be used. P i J
=
1 M J i (7) wherein indicates the weight value of the overall sorting of the hierarchy, specifically, as shown in the formula (8). A 1 B + A 2 B + ⋯ +
The consistency ratio CR of the total sorting of the hierarchy (9) is employed. C r
A
1 C I + 2 C + ⋯ + a C i M A 1 R + A 2 2 + ⋯ + R M When the CR value is 0.1 hours, the total sorting of the hierarchy is reasonable, otherwise it is unreasonable. 3. Case analysis In this paper, the method optimized by the surface settlement of a city, and the analysis of the various layers of the surface settlement monitoring programs in the city were analyzed. Judging matrix. As shown in Fig. 2 . Figure 2 . The Monitoring Scheme Selects The Judgment Matrix of Each Level . Monitoring scheme is preferred to determine the matrix in Fig. 3 , the calculation is calculated using MATLAB. The maximum feature value and feature vector result of each matrix. Fighe 3 . Matlab Calculation Results Figure 3 . MATLAB calculation results For the judgment matrix AA, the maximum feature value λ MAX = 5.098 , normalized feature vector is W = 0.173 , 0.05 , 0.273 , the consistency index is C = 0.0245 , consistency ratio C R indicates that the judgment matrix is reasonable and the result is inspected by consistency. . Similarly, the consistency ratio of other matrices can be obtained. Then you can find P 1 For the weight of the target layer Z layer is 0.57, P 2 The weight of the target layer Z layer is 0.43, it can be seen that the plan is a P 1 The ground settlement monitoring of the city is superior to the prime minus measurement using GPS, so that the solution is selected. 4. Conclusion This paper uses a hierarchical analysis method for optimization of urban settlement monitoring, and has carried out case analysis as an example of ground sinking monitoring. The results show that GPS is used in the city. Settlement monitoring is more scientifically reasonable, the main reason is that GPS is used for urban ground settlement monitoring not only expands the monitoring area, and the monitoring cost can also improve monitoring flexibility. It can also be seen that the use of hierarchical analysis can reduce the difficulty of the program selection and the impact of human subjective factors, and improve the objectivity and scientificity of final decision-making. Reference [1] Wang Jianwen. Application of precision level measurement technology in key settling area monitoring [D]: [Master’s thesis]. Xi’an: Xi’an University of Science and Technology, 2020. Langhui. Analysis and Application of Waiter Level in Foundation Pit Settlement Monitoring [J]. Fujian Building Materials, 2020 (8): 20- 21 + 27. Xie Xuhui, Xu Xiwen. Senior Building Descertrome Measurement Based on High-precision Level Measurement [J] .Jiangxi Building Materials, 2018 (13): 41-42 Wang Thunder. On the application of precision level measurement in terrestrial settlement monitoring [J]. North China Land and Resources, 2013 (2): 113-116. Qin Hongkui, Wang Pingde. GPS is used in Tianjin ground settlement monitoring in the surveillance monitoring of Tianjin [J]. Surveying and Mapping Information and Engineering, 2012, 37 (2): 20-21. [6] Xu Ziping.Application of Digital Glass In Settlement Observations [J] .Shaisse Building, 2019, 45 (22): 146-148.
[ 7]
Lin Lixiang. Application of Triangle Elevation in Pavement in Pavement Settles [J]. 土 土 基, 2019, 33 (2): 215-219. Wang Mingyue, Pan Ying, Huangyang.Analysis of the segmentation observation method of large commercial building [J]. Modern Semism, 2015, 38 (2) : 23-25. [9] CHEN, J., YUE, D., Liu, Z., et al. (2019) Experimental ResEarch On Daily DEFORMATION MONITORING OF BRIDGE USING BDS / GPS. Survey Review, 51, 472-482. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396265.2018.1481699 TU, R., Liu, J., Lu, C., et al. (2017) Cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS AND STRONG -Motion Observations for Real-Time DEFORMATION MONITORING. Geophysical Journals, 209, 1408-1417. https://doi.org/10.1093 / gji / ggX099 Hu Jut, Liu Dajie. GPS measurement based on GPS base station [J] Modern Surveying 2003 (1): 10-13. [12] Yi Changrong, Wang Wei, Xu Dong. GPS continuous station monitoring Tianjin ground settlement preliminary results [J]. Modern Surveying, 2009, 32 (1): 31-33 Zhu Qing, Chen Kaihao, Xie Wei, et al. Fuzzy hierarchy analysis and three-dimensional GIS integrated boosting station selection Some Method [J]. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 2019, 54 (5): 980-988. Xu Yongxi. Evaluation of rural tourism resources in Nanling County based on level analysis [J]. Anhui Agricultural News, 2020, 26 (24): 159 -162. Cheng Yu, Lu Feng, Fan Rui, Zhu Min. Research on Side Model of Growth Geography Based on AHP Construction [J]. Modern Surveying, 2018, 41 (6): 29-32. Jia Tao. Risk assessment of mudslide disaster in Songpan Section, Chenglan Railway [D]: [Master’s thesis]. Chengdu: Chengdu University of Technology, 2015. [17] Liu Hengcheng, Gu Xiuzhi.Study on Dangerous Evaluation of Debris Flow Based on Extension Analysis [J]. Journal of Geological Hazard and Prevention, 2010, 21 (3): 61 -66.
]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/optimization-of-urban-settlement-monitoring-scheme-based-on-hierarchical-analysis/feed/0Prediction of ARIMA Model Based on Season Effects on New Employment Number of Towns in Guizhou Province
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/prediction-of-arima-model-based-on-season-effects-on-new-employment-number-of-towns-in-guizhou-province/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/prediction-of-arima-model-based-on-season-effects-on-new-employment-number-of-towns-in-guizhou-province/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:28 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/prediction-of-arima-model-based-on-season-effects-on-new-employment-number-of-towns-in-guizhou-province/1. Introduction
Guizhou Province offensive to eliminate poverty, improve people’s livelihood, and gradually realize common prosperity, is the essential requirements of socialism, and is also an important mission of the Chinese Communist Party. This article is based on the three major principles built in the evaluation of happiness indicators, including regional, representative and operability [1], for the actual situation of Guizhou Province, the achievements of the implementation of the strategy of poverty, from urban employment growth Angle analysis has been developing in Guizhou in recent years. Liu Pan combined with Guizhou Forestry Promoting the Advantages of Poverty Alleviation and Taking Measures, I proposed the Countermeasures for the Work of Forestry Poverty Alleviation [3]. The difference between each stage is considered to be in terms of ice, causing the problems in the presence of poverty, and is constantly changing, and it is necessary to accurately identify the steering and contradictions [4].
Guizhou province has steadily launched in the employment of urban residents, and the vast majority of urban residents are guaranteed. The study found that urban development enabling the surrounding economy underdeveloped, Guizhou Province, poverty-poverty attention should be moved from the countryside [5]. Li Ru is based on gray correlation analysis, pointing out that the changes in urban new employment population have certain periodic [6]. Wujiang believes that the number of new employment in urban and towns is affected by many local economic development, industrial structure, and education levels [7]. The number of new employment can be more intuitive reflect the progress of the provincial provinces of Guizhou Province, so the prediction of the new employment will provide a reference for future povertygrams. Forecast is the basis and basis of decision making, predicting new employment people, can provide certain help for the implementation of relevant policy measures, so the prediction of new employment in Guizhou Province is meaningful and necessary.
2. Theoretical Basic
AriMA Model
_{ ARIMA Model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model), differential integrated mobile average self-return model, also known as integrated mobile The average self-regression model is one of the time series prediction analysis methods [8]. ARIMA (P, D, Q), Ar is “self-return”, P is the number of self-registration items; MA is “sliding average”, Q is the number of sliding average, D is the number of differential times made to make a smooth sequence . The quarter product ARIMA model is arimaComprehensive model and season model. If time sequence y } t _{ In addition to the trend variation, there is a more pronounced seasonal change, in order to perform sequences, eliminate the seasonal, and then perform seasonal differential elimination sequences. The steps should be consistent with the season cycle and then build an ARIMA model containing the parameters of the season differential, that is, the seasonal product ARIMA model. ARIMA (p, d, q) × (p, d, q) } S
Model is:
φ ) φ L S ) ( 1 D [ ( – L S ) Y T = θ Q [1 θ q ( ) ε T φ P ([ = 1 – φ 1 φ 2 L – –
φ P is a non-season self-return polynomial, and P is the self-return order; ( L ) = 1 – L – θ 2 – ⋯ – θ L Q
is a non-season moving average polynomial, Q is a moving average; θ p ( L = 1 L – L 2 – Q L q is a seasonal self-return polynomial, wherein P is a seasonal self-return step; θ Q ( =
θ 2 L – – θ q is the season moving average polynomial, where Q is the season moving average; ( – ) D is a differential calculator, D is a differential order; ( 1 –
D For the seasonal difference operator, D is the seasonal difference order, and S is the season cycle. 2.2. Determining factor decomposition method The basic idea of determining factor decomposition is: although different sequence fluctuations are triper, butVarious changes in the sequence can be summarized into a comprehensive impact of four major factors [8]: 1) Long-term trend: The effect of this factor can result in a significant long-term trend (increment, Decrease, etc.); 2) Cycle fluctuation: This factor can cause sequences to present repeated cycle fluctuations from low to high, if the observation period is not long enough to transaction day ( DAY); 3) Seasonal change (Season): This factor can cause sequences to present stable cycle fluctuations related to seasonal changes; 4) Random fluctuation (IMMEDIAT): In addition to long-term trends, cycle fluctuations (trading days), seasonal changes, sequences will also be affected by various other factors, and these effects result in a certain random fluctuation. 3. Analysis and Forecast 3.1. Analysis of new employment population Historical data from January 2002 to December 2019 urban new employment The sequence is recorded as Y, from the timing chart ( Fig. 1 ) can be generally seen that its historical trend and fluctuation situation, the horizontal coordinates in the figure, and the ordinate indicates the number of new employment. Figure 1 . TIME Series of Newly-Increased Urban Employment Population from 2002 to 2019 . 2002 to 2019 urban new employment population timing chart The number of new employment in urban new employment has a significant growth trend, and It is affected by seasonal effects in a certain extent. Here is a broad “season”, that is, any event that presents a fixed periodic change can be called “season” effect. From FIG. 2 It can be seen that there is a significant seasonal effect in the number of new employment populations, new March and JuneThe number of people is significantly higher than that of the other month. Overall, the new employment population presents a gradually increased trend and obvious seasonal characteristics, trend of seasonal fluctuations, and obvious seasonal characteristics, seasonal fluctuations, and gradually slowing. Since Guizhou Province, January 2016, the number of new employment people in the urban new employment in the urban new employment, such as this sequence has a significant growth trend, there is a fixed change cycle, so consider adoption Determinative analysis method, which uses commonly used deterministic factors. Figure 2 . Seasonal FluctionS in new Employment Fig. 2 . Seasonal fluctuations in the new employment
Due to the difference in the amount of the indicator, when the levels between each indicator differ, if the original indicator value is directly utilized Analysis, the role of highlighting the high value levels in integrated analysis, reducing the effect of lower numerical levels. In order to ensure the reliability of the results, after the data is completed, the data is further standardized by SPSS software, and the processing steps: SMS data window Site: Analysis – Description Statistics – Description, select the variables to select the alternate box, select Save a standardized score as a variable, click OK, and get the standardized score of each variable in the data window [9]. 3.2. Establish an ARIMA model Due to the prediction angle, the recent value is more than the long-term value to the future, in order to make the model prediction while using more historical data The accuracy is higher, and this paper selection from January 2002 to the monthly data of the number of new employees in 18 years in 2019. All data from 2002 to 2018 are used as samples for establishing an ARIMA model. In 2019, data is used for sample prediction to verify the fitting effect of the model. This article uses R 3.6.3 software and EVIEWS10.0 software to establish models and predict. The establishment process of the ARIMA model is Fig. 3 is shown. Figure 3 . Arima Modeling Flowchart Figure 3 . ARIMA Modeling Flowchart The ARIMA model is established, and there is a pretreatment, model identification, model set, parameter estimate, and model validity verification of time series. 1) Premieving of time series data must simultaneously meet both of the stability and non-white noise to analyze the prediction of the ARIMA model. If the data is non-steady, it can be used to smooth data, if the sequence is white noise, it means that there is no obvious correlation between the values, that is, the past has no effect on future trend development. Therefore, there is no value, so the pretreatment of the data includes two parts: the stationary test and the white noise test. First, it can be observed from the sequence of sequences, from Fig. 1 It can be seen that the number of new employment has a growth trend, and has obvious seasonal fluctuations, data is not stable. It is seen that its stability is inspected with the unit root (see table 1 ), it can be seen that the ADF inspection statistic value is -2.5690, which is greater than 1%, 5%, 10% of the verification level, so There is a unit root that is non-stationary. Table 1 . UNIT Root Test for SEQUENCE Y Table 1 . The unit root test in order to make the sequence change, and the original sequence Y is a first-order differential process to obtain a sequence Dy. From
Fig. 4
It can be seen that the differential sequence DY always fluctuates up and down in a constant value, and the trend is eliminated.It further conducts the unit root inspection (see
Table 2
), it is understood that the original holiday in which the unit root is rejected, and the sequence DY is smooth.
Fast-stability test After passing, the sequence DY is also performed, so it makes the self-relevant and partial related map for further investigation, from
Fig. 5
can be seen, at the 6th order , The P value of 12th order, 18th order, 24th order, Q statistics is less than 0.05, so the sequence is a non-white noise sequence. Through the above test, it is understood that DY is a smooth non-white noise sequence, and an ARIMA model can be established.
Figure 5
. AutocorRelation Graph and Partial AutoCorrelation Graph of Sequence Dy
Figure 5 . Self-description of sequence DY and partial correlation diagram
may be initially determined to be 2, Q is 1. HereIn order to find the optimal fitting model, 0, 1, 2 is selected for P and Q, respectively, and similar, for P and Q, 0, 1, 2 is selected separately. For the screening of the model, first see the parameter significance, if the parameters are not significant, the indexing of the independent parameters should be removed, and the low-order to high-order is sequentially modeled, and finally ARIMA (1, 1, 1) × (0, 1, 1)
The data in Table 3 can be seen, compared to MOD2 AIC guidelines, SCI standards, and HQC guidelines are smaller, and simultaneously equipped R 2 , it is considered to be better, × (2, 1, 1) × (0, 1, ” 1) 12 is the optimal fitting model.
3) Model Validity Verification
To perform an effective test, that is, check whether the test residual is satisfied, the residual sequence test results are
It can be seen that although the actual value is in-depth, the relative error is small, the average error is 3.5%, and the prediction accuracy is better. Sustaining, the ARIMA model predicts the monthly data of 2002 to 2019, and the overall fitting effect is seen. Due to the data, the predictive sample range is reduced to April 2003 to December 2019.
The ARIMA model applies to short-term predictions, so this article predicts the foreign direct investment in my country in 2020.
Table 5 ^{ Figure 10 } is the result of the number of new employment in the urban urban town in 2020. _{ }
Table 5 . Comparison of Model Prediction Results with real values Table 5
. Model prediction results and real value comparison
_{ }
Figure 10
. 2020 urban new employment population forecast results
If it is not affected by emergencies, the point forecast value is the theoretical value of the new employment. Since new coronal pneumonia has been built in early 2020, it is possible to analyze the impact of this important event on employment, which enables predictive results closer to reality. Compared with the actual number of employment in Guizhou, from January to April, Guizhou Province, compared with the predictive value of the ARIMA model (see
Table 6
and
FIG. 11
To observe and analyze the extent of new crown epidemic and the trend of new employment population under the epidemic.
January, new crown pneumonitis has not spread widely The new population of urban employment still maintains a trend of steady growth, and the actual phase difference is small and within the acceporary. In February, the new crown epidemic in the outbreak period, the new employment population has begun to be greatly affected; in Fig. 11 can also be seen in February, the actual value exceeds 95% level. The lower limit of the prediction section. In March, as China’s epidemic is basically controlled, the relative error is reduced from the previous month, and the actual value is close to the lower limit of the prediction section, and there is a certain stable sign in the range of employment conditions. In April, the number of employment and predicted values were only 0.3%, indicating that the impact of new crown epidemic gradually subsided, and my country’s resident employment began to return to the right track. Therefore, the impact of this major random event in the new crown epidemic is staged, temporary, does not change the overall stable trend. This also shows that the forecast results of the forebet ARIMA model are still effective.
4. Conclusion and Prospect
This paper analyzes my country’s actual new employment population data in 2002 to 2019, establish ARIMA (2, 1, 1) × (0, 1, 1
Huang Jing. Research on the method of constructing a happiness index index system [D]: [Master’s thesis]. Dalian: Northeast University of Finance and Economics, 2007: 14-25. [2] Wang Chunguang.Study on Poverty Adventure and Sustainable Development in Guizhou Province [J] .Journal of Guizhou University for Nationalities (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 2018 (3): 39-56. [3] Liu Pan, Zhang Ying. Analysis of the effectiveness of the poverty alleviation of Guizhou Forestry Based on Statistics [J]. Forestry Economy, 2017 (5): 94-97. In ice. The problem of deprotecing the work of poverty in Guizhou Province and countermeasures [J]. Theory and Contemporary, 2018, 411 (8): 18-20. 茂 文, Nie Xuesong. Guizhou poverty alleviation attack, poverty characteristics and countermeasures [J]. Guizhou National Research, 2000 (3): 44-47. [6] Li Yixi. Analysis of Gray Correlation in the Change Trend of Urban Employment Population in my country [J]. Modern Business, 2016 (33): 193-194. [7] Wujiang, Wang Xin. Problems in public employment services and their solutions [J]. City Issues, 2012 (7): 59-64. [8] Easy Danhui, Wang Yan. Application Time Series Analysis [M]. 5th Edition. Beijing: Renmin University of China Press, 2019: 154-188. Zhang Wenhao, Qi Chunwei. SPSS Statistical Analysis Basic Tutorial [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2011: 89-91
]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/prediction-of-arima-model-based-on-season-effects-on-new-employment-number-of-towns-in-guizhou-province/feed/0Statistical Inference of Stratified Linear Regression Model Based on Nested Structure
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/statistical-inference-of-stratified-linear-regression-model-based-on-nested-structure/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/statistical-inference-of-stratified-linear-regression-model-based-on-nested-structure/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:28 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/statistical-inference-of-stratified-linear-regression-model-based-on-nested-structure/1. Introduction
In actual observation data, data often has a hierarchical structure, and data having nested and hierarchical structures can be analyzed using a multi-layer linear model, and the multilayer linear model is in processing lack of data. It does not affect the characteristics of parameter estimation accuracy, compared to the multi-linear regression model, the longitudinal data has a large advantage, and there is no strict requirement for the number of repeated measurements and time spans. For the description of the layered linear regression model, the names in different documents are different. In sociological studies, it is often referred to as multi-layer linear models (Goldstein [1], 1997), in biometric application, called For the random effect model (laird [2], 1982), in statistical literature, it is generally referred to as a covariance component model (Dempster [3], 1981). The unknown parameters of the layered linear regression model are generally estimated to estimate the regression coefficients and variance coefficient differences corresponding to the random effect and the fixed effect. In this paper, the regression coefficient diagnosis problem of the hierarchical linear regression model is mainly considered. The first layer of regression coefficient of the layer linear regression model performs regression diagnosis, that is, the corresponding diagnosis problem of multivariate linear regression coefficients, has a small number of references to the second layer coefficient of the layered linear regression model, and this article is hierarchical The regression diagnosis of the second layer coefficient is primarily inferred by constructing a method of laminated linear regression model likelihood functions. In the multi-linear regression model, Wu Xi Zhi [4] (2016) uses a linear model to approximate the variable and the linear relationship of the variable, and give the parameter estimation in the linear model and the multi-variable coefficient composite inspection process, thank you Yu [5] (2013) introduces the specific meaning of the nested model in the multi-linear model, and gives the combined test of the combined test of multiple regression coefficients of nested models, and gives two-point due variable nested models. Model evaluation method, but does not give a test process of a layered linear nested model, Lindley & Smith [6] (1972) gives a specific form of a layered linear model for complex nested data, and is targeted The unknown parameters in the regression model give a specific estimate, and Tian Mao is again [7] (2006) proposes the algorithm of the Conditional Points of GuAss-SeiDel iteration, solving the layered model cannot be fully portrayed. VisionThe condition of responding variables, Wu Mi Xia [8] (2013) introduces the likelihood test of the model parameters, gives the specific hypothesis process, Liu Hongyun [9] (2005) introduces in tracking data analysis For multi-layer linear models, the WALD test can be utilized to make a significant test of the fixed partial parameters.
For the statistical inferior promotion of the regression model, Ma Haiqiang [10] (2008) gave the statistical diagnosis problem of variable coefficient model, Dai Lin sent [11] (2013) to study the generalized Poisson regression model Statistical diagnostic method, Li & Lee [12] (2019) Maximize the blend of two-parameter zero expansion and negative two distribution regression models through the likelihood function, and evaluate a consecutive coarction effect of a hypothetical functional form Proficiency, using data to prove the effectiveness of its methods. Feiyu [13] (2013) introduces the statistical diagnosis method of linear hybrid model and generalized linear hybrid model. Zeng et al [14] (2017) proposes three integrated residuals, leverage values, and coefficient variations to diagnose abnormal points or strong impact points of data in the logistic regression model. Chown & Ursula [15] (2019) Introduced a multi-poorer test method for non-parameter regression models, using local polynomial smooth structure residual, design and detection function verification parallelism.振 等 [16] (2016) Diagnosis of abnormal dots in the big data set after the leverage value sample. Liang Jin Wen [17] (2020) Based on the diagnosis of abnormal points based on data deletion model and mean drift model, the number of abnormal points was studied by volume sampling.
The least squares method based on the linear regression model is estimated, and the linear regression nested model is mainly discussed whether the regression coefficient of increased variables is remarkable, and whether there is a substantial change in the original regression coefficient. This determines the variable reservation or not. Based on the variable discussion in the linear regression model, the layered linear regression model is further discussed. This is also the main innovation point of this paper, using the ratio of the likelihood function of the nesting structure, the ratio of the likelihood function is judged to the layered linear embedded Set of rationality of the model assumption. At the same time, this article is based on the same variance. There are also other articles on the differential differences in linear regression models.Detailed description.
In this article, according to the meaning of the multivariate linear nested model, the multi-line nested model is mainly used to verify the significance of the restrictive model and the non-limiting model, and through the Boston Rate The validity of the test statistic, and according to the nesting structure of the multi-linear model, a reasonable hypothesis of the nested structure of the hierarchical linear model is mainly hypothetical, mainly by constructing a laminated linear regression model of a nesting structure. The ratio is determined from the card distribution, and the significance problem of the restriction layered regression model and the non-limiting layered regression model is determined by a given reject domain.
2. Statistical Inference of Linear Nested Model
If we only consider the regression diagnosis of the first layer coefficient of the layered linear model, the layered linear model can directly understand the multivariate linearity. Regression model of the regression model. In order to better perform the statistical diagnosis of the first layer model, the first layer of model is now in the form of transformation, and its practical significance has no effect.
We consider that there is a general form of a random linear model. The linear model means that the relationship between the variable Y and the variable X can be used to approximate (Wu Xi [4] 2016):
= X I + ε i , = 1 , , N y i
In
× N × P The known vector matrix, is an unknown parameter to be estimated, ε is a random error term that the model cannot be described. Normally, random error i satisfies 3 assumptions: 1) ( ε i ) V a R ( ε i = σ 2 ; 3) ( ε I ) = i j . Often, people put unknown Assumble as equal In the case of the traditional minimum multiplier estimation model parameters, the obtained parameter estimate is not an effective estimate, and the regression diagnosis of the difference in the case of the difference is not specifically described. The following linear regression diagnosis is based on the same time. For linear regression models to be estimated parameters The method of commonly used estimation parameters is a normal least squares method, and its purpose is to make ε x β to minimize, That is, ( β ) = ( Y – β 2
The minimum is achieved. That is, the unknown parameter
β s ( β is zero, it can be obtained: β ^ = ( X ” – 1 If the argument in a model is another model The linear combination of the self-variable subset or subset is called two models of nested models (Xie Yu [5] 2013). The model of a linear combination of a model subset or a subset is referred to as a restrictive model, and another model corresponding to a non-limiting model is referred to as a non-limiting model nested in a non-limiting model. The coefficient of multivariate linear regression model is proposed as follows: H 0 : y X 1 β
1
+ 2 β 2 Vs : Y = X 1 + X 2
+
X
3 Corresponding test statistic : F J = S E H – S S E ) / K – g S S H 1 / ( – K – 1 wherein s S
H
0
is the original hypothesis H The corresponding residual fraction, S S H is prepared hypothesis [ 10] H The corresponding residual square and the residual fraction of the residual model and the non-limiting model (Xie Yu[5] 2013). Here, the number of regression coefficients contained in the alternative hypothesis model N – K – Corresponding to the alternative hypothesis of residuals and the degree of freedom. This freedom increment is between optional hypothesis and the original hypothesis corresponding model The difference between the number of regression coefficients. α , the rejection domain of the test is F J F α ( 1 , N – ) . Since the original hypothesis removes the partial argument, theoretical assumptions corresponding to the residual fraction and the residual sum of the residuals are not less than the hypothesis. Since the original hypothesis is only one parameter between the corresponding model, T inspection statistics can also be used T = F 1 ~ T (
) For a given significance level α , the rejection domain of the test is | | > T ( N ) . Where the F. The first degree of freedom of the F status is 1, then the F statistic can also be used to use T statistics. For the linear regression model of the nested structure, the determination coefficient increment can be used to explain the problem of returning model fit, and the determination coefficient of the non-limiting model is subtracted to reduce the restriction model. The decision coefficient (Xie Yu [5] 2013), the detailed process will be reflected in the simulation of Boston Rate factors, and consider the addition of the original hypothesis and alternative hypothesis of the multivariate limit model and the non-limiting model. The average number of residential rooms This argument is determined by variable analysis to determine this variable. Whether the problem is retained. The following simulation data is derived from part of the Boston house price, with the number of the number of housing prices as the variable Y, with the average room number of each house x , the five employment center of Boston is X
3 We constructed linear nesting model test, original assumptions are restricted models, with x 2 3 is an independent variable, and the alternative assumption is not The limit model is added to the average room number of each residential, with x 1 ,
X 3 is self-variable, specifically expression: h 0 : Y β 2 X 2 3 + H 1 : y β 1 X 1 2 X 2 X 3 + Fighe 1 . Scatter Plot of Restricted Model Fig. 1 . Scatter points of the restriction model Figure 2
. Scatter Plot of Unrestricted Model Fig. 2 . Scatter plots of non-limiting model From
Fig. 1 and Figure 2 It can be seen that in the factors affecting the price of Boston, the average room number X 1 2 and students in town There is a significant linear relationship with the median ym of the home price. In response to this multivariate linear regression model, we construct a restriction model with non-limiting models, and constructive statistics, which can be seen from the following variance analysis table. Table 1 . Analysis of Variance of Restrictive Model and Unrestricted MoDEL Table 1 . Restriction model and non-limiting model variance analysis table According to Table 1 variance analysis table Get, the test statistic of the nested model is calculated to obtain a F value of 28.255, so that the P value corresponding to the nested model F is significantly less than the significant level 0.05, so rejecting the original hypothesis, accepting optional assumptions, ie non-limiting The model passes a significant test. At the same time, the T value obtained by the F value is 5.316 is greater than the rejection domain 2.160. At the same time, it can also be based on the increment of the determination coefficient according to the nested model, it can be seen that when the restriction model is added to the self-variable x 1 , the determination coefficient R 2 increases, meaning more square and is explained by the non-limiting model. In the multivariate linear regression model statistics, it is generally included in two aspects: one is the overall inspection of the regression model and the other is the test of the regression coefficient. The variance analysis of multi-linear regression is roughly the same, for multivariate linear nested models, we often use the construction of F statumerate to detect the hypothesis of the restriction model, if the original hypothesis of the nested model, the returning independent variable Only one regression coefficient can also be tested using T statistics, but the F statistic inspection cannot be used for two unscading models. At the same time, for the nested model, the restrictive model independent variable can not only be a non-limiting model, but also the non-limiting model independent variable can also be a linear combination of arguments in the restrictive model. 3. Stratified linear model statistics with nested structures Data often have a layered structure during statistical data, such as studying different students in universities, or The difference in the study of national economic development is interacting with adult education, or the difference in treatment methods of clinical drugs, etc., these cases have a study of nested problems, and the layered linear regression model gives a good model structure.The layered linear model is proposed by Lindley and Smith [6] (1972) as an important contribution to the estimation of the linear model, and the form of a universal layered linear model is given to complex nested structural data. . Here, the two-layer data model is used as an example, the specific form of two layered linear models is given, and there is a hypothesis ( X
of a set of independent distribution observation
X 1 , 1 ) ( 2 , y , ⋯ ( x N , Y } , wherein Y is the value of the real number of variables, X 1 × D β i is unknown × DirectionQuantity, meet the first layer model (Tian Mao repeated [7] 2006): Y i
σ 2 wherein R i is the IID unbaraciible random effect variable, assuming to interpret variables independent, combined with average value is 0, the variance is σ 2 Normal distribution. In the second layer model, the first layer model is in the coefficient vector as the interpretable variable, is a fixed effect vector, is a known interpretation variable matrix in the second layer:
wherein U is the second layer D × 1 Dimensional random effect vector, assuming and second layer interpretation variables and R Independent, the multi-pylon distribution of the same value is 0, the covariance is T. A second layer model is brought into the first layer model to obtain the following form (Raudenbush and Bryk [18] 1992): Y = i W + X i u + R i , = , ⋯ , N The above model is also referred to as a linear hybrid model, which can be used to analyze various types of repeated measurement data such as longitudinal data and panel data, compared to linear models, and the observing. The variance matrix can have a more flexible setting, and more convenient and reasonable assumptions are given for the random effect section. The statistical method for nested model analysis of the prolonged factor (Xie Yu [5] 2013), which is an impact on estimation and predicting the probability of success or failure. Differentiation variables are interpreted as having values, and is also commonly referred to as 0-1 variables, which are often used to handle the two-point factor variables to Logit model. In response to the two-binary variables in the nesting relationship, it is often more preferred to determine the method of fitting the model of the model, that is, the difference between the two nested models. Statistic, its statistic is from distributed, corresponding to statistic forms: δ g 2 = g – g U wherein g R g U The alignment ratio of the unconstrained model is obedient with the two-point due variable nested model, and χ
The different degree of freedom of freedom is the residual degree of freedom and the residual degree of freedom of residuality and constraint model. Nested model for the hypothetical test and the two-point due variable for the above multi-linear regression modelTest, expanded to a layered linear regression model, and the unknown parameter estimate in the layered linear model is mainly estimated to estimate the regression coefficient of the fixed effect and the variance of the random effect, specifically according to the use of Raudenbush [18] (1992). The condition of fully data sufficient statistics is expected to replace the iterative process of the desired step, which does not specifically discuss the parameter estimation process, and the following content is primarily a likelihood function of the layered linear model. Bringing the second layer model into the first layer model, y i has a linear mixed model form, known, first layer random error R i ~ N 0 , σ 2 and the second layer random error U ~ N ( 0 , the linear hybrid model
y 】 y ~ N ( W ,
V
) , corresponding, V = x T
τ + σ 2 i . The likelihood function of the layered linear model is: L ( y = π J 2 π )
– N 2 | V | Exp { –
1
2
Y – X W τ V ( y – X ) } = π J = 1 J
( 2 π
–
| X X J τ + N
| Exp { – ( y –
τ X J τ X J + σ 2 | – ( Y – X W } = ( 2 π – N | X X J τ + σ 2 i N N 2 { – 1 2
=
1 N ( y – X W τ | X τ J τ + i N | – ( y – wherein T g ( τ ⋯ , τ ) , = 1 , ⋯ , J . According to the above, a general hypothesis of a layered linear model having a nested structure is given: Under zero assault: First layer: Y 1 β 1 + ε 1 ~ ( 0 , σ ) Layer 2: β ~ N W R , T 1 Preparation hypothesis: First layer: y 1 β 1 2 β 2 + ε 2 ~ ( 0 , ) Second layer: β 1 β 2 ~ N ( ( W R ) , Assume θ | Y ) is a likelihood function of parameter θ , wherein y = ( y 1 ⋯ , y [12 ” is a sample capacity of n The sample, parameter space Ω , the test problem is h : : ∈ Ω 0 H 1 : θ ∉ Ω 0 , the statistic definition is likelihood ratio (Wu Mi Xia [8] 2013) is: L Y ) = SUP θ ∈ Ω L N ( θ ∈ Ω L | y In the multi-analytical process, the likelihood ratio test is a common test method, and the ratio is constructed using the classic likelihood function: ( 1 , ⋯ N = ( H 0 ) / L ( h 1 . Here we construct a likelihood ratio of the layered nested inspection, the original assumption is a restriction layered linear regression model, and the alternative assumption is a non-limiting hierarchical linear regression model, thus constructing a similarity ratio test statistical comparison of the hierarchical linear regression model. the amount. L ( h = π I =
([ ) – N | | | 1 Exp – 1
(
y i – X W 1 R τ V 1 ( Y 1 i [1 1 i W
) } wherein V = 1 T 1 1 τ +
σ
N . ( H ) ) π i = 1 ( 2 – N 2 | V 2 1 2 Exp
{
1 2 ( Y 2 i – 1 i W R – X 2 i R ) V 2 – 1 Y I – X W 1 R – 2 i W
2 R V 2 = 1 1 X 1 + X 2 X 2 τ + i N . The constructor is: L ( h 0 ) H 1 ) π i = N
π ) – | 1 2 Exp – 1 2 1 i – – X 1 i R ) τ V 1 – ( Y 1 I – –
1 i R ) π = N ( – N 2 | V 2 1
2
Exp – – 1 2 ( Y i – i W 1 R – X W 2 R ) τ V 2 – ( Y – X 1 W 1 R – 2 i W R } = V 1 2 { – – 1 2 σ i = ( Y x W 1 R τ V 1
( Y 1 – 1 i R ) | V 2 |
Exp { σ i = 1 N Y 2 i 1 i R – X 2 W 2 R τ V 2 ( y 2 i 1 i R – X 2 W 2 R } Among them, the molecule indicates the maximum value of the original hypothesis, and the denominator indicates the maximum value of the alternative hypothesis. If the value of the statistic is very large, the possibility of the original hypothesis is compared with the possibility of the preparation assumption. It is small, so we have reason to think that the original hypothesis is not established. In the multi-layer linear model, the statistical diagnosis of the model single self-variable parameter estimation value can be obtained by very large likelihood estimation to obtain a standard error of the fixed partial parameter estimate, and the significance of the fixed portion Test, you can estimate parameterThe value is divided by the standard, that is, the corresponding γ / S E is carried out (Liu Hongyun [9] 2005). For multi-layer nested linear regression model, constructor is: λ ( , ⋯ , X N = ( h L (H 1) The statistical suits χ 2 Distribution, its freedom is equal to the number of alternative hypothetical parameters minus the number of parameters in the original hypothesis, for the given hierarchical linear regression zero counterfeit and alternative hypothesis, here χ The degree of freedom in which the distribution corresponds to 1. is remarkableSexual level , its reject domain is: W = { χ 1
C , if it falls into the reject domain, The statistical diagnosis is not significant, then the original hypothesis is rejected, accepts the presence assumptions of non-restricted hierarchical linear models. 4. Data Analysis The following data comes from 7185 student mathematics scores in 160 schools, and analyzes the data in a layered linear regression model. Here we select some of these data to nested Layered linear regression model analysis, for the first layer, that is, the students level, this is selected as the variable, ie y , FEMALE (student gender) (1 means female, 0 means male), SES (student social status ) The students’ parents are educated, occupational and income synthesis as an argument. For the second level, ie the school level, this is selected here, including the average social status of each school, the average social status of each school student, Size (the number of students enrollment) is used as the second layer of arguments . Here, constructing a restriction layered linear model is: Mathach as the third student variable in paragraph J, Y i J , SES As the first layer level of the secondary variable X , Meanses and Disclim as the index quantity of the school in the second layer level, ie W 0 1 , non-limiting hierarchical linear model construction As the number I of JISA, the number of variables i J , SES and FEMALE As the first layer of schools, the first level of the second variable X
1
X 2 , MeanSes and Disclim and Size as the index quantum of the school in the second layer level, ie W W 1 , the specific model construct is as follows: original It is assumed: i J J + J * S E S I + ε i j β 0 = γ 00 01 * M E s E S J J β 1 = γ 10 γ 11 * D I C i M J Bringing a second layer model into a mixing effect obtained by the first layer modelThe model is: Y i J + γ * M N N + γ 10 * S i + γ 11 * C L i M * E S i + U 0 j + i J Table 2 . Estimation of Fixed Effects in null hypothesis Hierarchical Linear Model . The fixed effect estimation in the layered linear model Table 2 After 6 iterations The variable value of the albarative function is minimized, gives the coefficient estimate of the fixed effect variable and the corresponding standard error in the case of the original, where the fixed effect is obtained by the least squares estimation, and the variable can be seen by p value. Both coefficient estimates passed the test, and the variance corresponding to the first layer of the linear regression model was 36.887. Alternative assumptions are: First layer: Y i J = β J + β 1 * E M A i j + * S E i J + ε Layer 2: J = + γ 01 N S E + U 0 J J = + γ 11 * S i z E J J = γ + γ 21 * C L i M Baby the second layer model into the first layer to obtain a mixed effect model of the alternative hypothesis: Y J = + γ 01 N S + γ 10 F A L J + γ 11 * Z E J * F A L + γ 20 * E i j + 21 * i C L i M J * i J U J + Table 3 . Estimation of Fixed Effects in Alternative Hypothesis HIRArchical linear model . Preparation assumptions of fixed effects in the layered linear model from Table 3 after 6 times The iterative likelihood function change value minimizes, it can be seen that the coefficient estimate corresponding to the fixed effect in the hierarchical linear regression model in the case of alternative hypothesis, and most of the significance test is detected at a significant level of 0.05, coefficient did not pass a significant test at a significant level of 0.01, while The variance corresponding to the first layer is 36.628. The likelihood ratio of the nested model is 1.001 by calculation, corresponding to the suggestive level = χ 1 2 The value is 0.0002, according to a given reject domain, the original hypothesis cannot be rejected, so that the original hypothesis is accepted, that is, the restriction hierarchical linear model, indicating that the school recovery number variable from the school, from the students level Introducing gender variables, there is no significant effect on college students’ mathematics. 5. Small junction This article passes multiple linear nesting modesThe hypothetical hypothesis process proposes a hypothetical test of a layered linear regression model with a nested structure. By the lack of linear models, it is determined to determine whether the layered linear model is retained for introducing new variables. The corresponding theoretical basis is given, and the feasibility and construct of the assumption of the tester have the practicality of the nested structure likelihood ratio statistic. Notes * Corresponding author. Reference [1] COrgeau, D. And Goldstein, H. (1997) Multilevel StatisTical Models. Population, 52, 1043-1046. [2] Laird, NM (1982) Random Effects Model For Longitudinal Data. Biometrics, 38, 963-974. https: inexposure Dempster, AP and Tsutakawa, DBRK (1981) Estimation In Covariance Components Models. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 76, 341-353. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1981.10477653 [4] Wu Xizhi. Application regression and classification: Based on R [M]. Beijing: Renmin University of China Press, 2016. [5 Xie Yu. Regression analysis [M]. 2nd edition. Beijing: Social Science Document Press, 2013. Smith, DVLFM (1972) Bayes Estimates for the linear model. Journal of The Royal Statistical Society, 34, 1-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.2517-6161.1972.tb00885.x [7] Tian Mao again, Chen Ge Mai.Clastic linear regression model in conditional packet [J]. 中国 科学 A series, 2006, 36 (10): 1103-1118. Wu Mi Xia. Linear hybrid effect model introduction [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2013.
Liu Hongyun. Tracking Data Analysis Method and Its Application [M]. Beijing: Education Science Press, 2005. [10] Mahahaqiang. Statistical diagnosis and impact analysis of variable coefficient model [D]: [Master’s thesis]. Changsha: Central South University, 2008. Derin delivery, Lin Jin official. Statistical diagnosis of generalized Poisson regression model [J]. Statistics and Decision, 2013 ( 21): 29-33. [12] LI, CS, Lee, SM AND YEH, MS (2019) A Test for lack-of-fit of zero-inflated negative binomial models. Journal of Statal Computation and Simulation, 89, 1301-1321. https: / ..org/10.2019.1577856
Feiyu Mixed model and statistical diagnosis [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2013.
Zeng Wei, Hu Guizhi. Statistical Diagnosis of Logistic Regression Model [J]. Mathematical Statistics and Management, 2017, 36 (4 : 620-631. [15] Chown, J. and Müller, UU (2019) Corrigendum:. Detecting Heteroscedasticity in Non-Parametric Regression Using Weighted Empirical Processes Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Statistical Methodology), 81, 805-806. https://doi.org/10.1111/rssb.12324 Zhen, Dai Xiaowen, Tian Mao again. Anomalies Diagnosis of Large Data Set Samples Based on Leverage [J]. Mathematical StatisticsManagement, 2016, 35 (5): 794-802. Liang Jin Wen, Tian Mao. Based on the big data Abnormal Diagnosis and Estimation of Volume Sampling [J]. Mathematical Statistics and Management, 2020, 39 (2): 223-235. [18] Bryk, AS and Raudenbush, SW (1992) Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 98, 436-450.
]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/statistical-inference-of-stratified-linear-regression-model-based-on-nested-structure/feed/0Analysis of risk factors of impermaneous symptoms of implantation of implantated cardiac electronic devices, predictive value of prognosis and inflammatory factors
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/analysis-of-risk-factors-of-impermaneous-symptoms-of-implantation-of-implantated-cardiac-electronic-devices-predictive-value-of-prognosis-and-inflammatory-factors/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/analysis-of-risk-factors-of-impermaneous-symptoms-of-implantation-of-implantated-cardiac-electronic-devices-predictive-value-of-prognosis-and-inflammatory-factors/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:27 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/analysis-of-risk-factors-of-impermaneous-symptoms-of-implantation-of-implantated-cardiac-electronic-devices-predictive-value-of-prognosis-and-inflammatory-factors/1. Introduction
With the development of the aging of domestic and foreign populations, patients placed in Cied (Cardiac Implanted Electronic Devices), the patients in which the electronic device) increased year by year, and the clinical situation of complicated symptoms Characteristics [1] [2]. CIED-related infections have also become a common tricky problem. CIED clinical infection is ultimately likely to cause serious consequences of overall or partial devices, even infective endocarditis, surgical surgery [3] [4], early prevention and identification. The case definition of the case definition of the case definition of CIED pocket microbial culture positive but does not merge any clinical infection symptoms (redness and heat pain, crash, crack, crack, and supplementation, hydraulic pus can confirm Infection in symptoms, i.e., subclinical pocket infection. There have been many clinical experiments to show that the early detection rate of asymptomatic subclinical pockets is low, but the probability of CIED clinical infection occurs during subsequent follow-up [5], so early recognition of no symptoms infection, become clinical Practical concerns. Patients infected with subclinical pockets currently lack effective non-invasive inspection methods, while pockets are cultured in wound [6]. Therefore, looking for reliable non-invasive testing methods, early identification of CIED-related infections, is also critical to improving CIED infection, and is also a hot problem of current research.
2. Instruments and reagents
2.1. Instruments
Vitek-2 Compact bacterial automatic identification / drug sensitizer (French Merrier); electric thermostat incubator ( Shanghai Bo Xun Industrial Co., Ltd. Medical Equipment Factory; TQZ-312 Type Heavy Water Club (Shanghai Jinghong Experiment Equipment Co., Ltd.).
2.2. Reagent
Agarose, anhydrous calcium chloride, ampicillin, bromine, bromophenol blue, etc. Common molecular biology reagents (Shanghai Sangon).
3.1. Research object
January 2011 ~ October 2014 during the Ministry of Health Beijing Hospital and Fuwai Hospital line CIED replacement Patient. Selection criteria: 1.Years; 2. Previously implanted CIED, currently need to be replaced; 3. Expected survival time for more than 1 year; 4. Patients who fully understand the study and obtain informed consent. Exclusion criteria: 1. Patients refuse; 2. Clinical symptoms can be confirmed by patients with pockets; 3. Patients with CIED-related infective endocarditis can be diagnosed.
3.2. Method
3.2.1. Clinical data collection
For patients who meet the selected standards, record their clinical data: age, gender, pacemaker implantation Loosing, pacemaker replacement reasons, pacemaker implant time, replacement frequency, temporary pacemaker usage, pacemaker type, clinical complications and past history: Whether chronic heart disease (coronary heart disease or heart function, NYHA Hierarchical III, IV level; three kinds of drug controls for long-term hypertensive diseases), ventricular fibrillation, diabetes, whether thereof is incomplete in renal insufficiency (EGFR
2
), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression state (Use hormone or immunosuppressive drug), combined with malignant tumors, anticoagulant anti-blood plate drugs, recent antibiotic use (various reasons for various reasons for more than 10 days in March before surgery). Regular follow-up to 5 years after surgery, follow-up mode is outpatient follow-up or telephone consultation, recording whether the patient has a clinical pocket infection symbol or CIED-related infective endocarditis, whether it is cleared by CIED infection, wire removal, surgical surgery, Or dies due to CIED infection.
3.2.2. Specimen collection and detection
< 60 ml/min/1.73 m^{ Extracted 10 ml of the selection of the subject, immediately transmit microbiological examination laboratory line bacterial culture test. The selected subject is 4 mL, and the biopsy of the biopsy is selected. During CEID replacement, leave the bag specimen 5 g and immediately sent to the microbial examination laboratory for bacterial culture: the pocket specimen was ground after grinding blood agar medium, China blue medium and chocolate medium, At the same time, the broth was simultaneously inoculated, and the incubation of 35 ° C was observed for 24 hours, and the blood agar of the meat soup was transformed into blood agar medium, and the incubation tank was incubated in the incubation of 24 hours after observation. } 3.2.3. Statistical Method
Data is carried out using SPSS18.0 software package for statistical analysis, measurement data (x ±S), the single factor analysis is tested by the independent sample T. The multi-sample number is compared to the single-factor variance analysis and H test; the count data is compared with χ
2
inspection; multi-factor analysis adopts Logistic regression analysis, P
4.
4.1. Research object ^{ } Basic characteristics of the patient: This test has selected 179 cases of pacemakers to change patients, 101 cases of male In 78 women, age 21 to 96 years old, the average age (74.10 ± 12.46), the pacemaker implant time is 4 months, up to 372 months, the average implant time (114.78 ± 47.22) month. The replacement of CIEDs mainly includes: 171 (95.5%) of the battery, 6 cases (3.4%) (3.4%), 2 cases of electrode adjustment (1.1%). 47 cases of single cavity pacemakers (26.3%), double cavity pacifier example 129 (72.1%), ICD (Implanted Cardiac Defibrillator) 2 cases (1.1%), CRT (Cardiac Resynchronization Tharapy Heart resynchronous therapist) 1 case (0.6%). In the first time, 145 patients (81.0%), 25 cases (14.0%) (14.0%), 9 cases (5%). 8 patients with temporary pacemakers (4.5%) were used. Other basic features < 0.05认为差异有统计学意义。
108 routine of 5 inflammatory factors were randomly selected from the above patient. Basic information on patients involved in inflammatory factors, such as Table 4 .
Table 4
. Basic Information and Culture Result in Patients Undergoing Inflammatory Factors Tests
Table 4
. Basic data and culture results of patients involved in inflammatory factors
4.6. Correlation between inflammatory factors and pouch culture results of Pacemaker
Exhaute the combined basic disease, including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, renal dysfunction, chronic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppressive state (use Hormones or immunosuppressive drugs), malignant disease (various malignant tumors), after infection, 22 cases without the above complications were screened, and the correlation analysis of the culture result line culture results. The results show that even if the impact of the combined disease is excluded, the inflammatory factor value between the positive positive group and the pocket culture negative group is not statistically different. See
. Contrast of Inflammatory Factors Between Patients WITHOUT COMPLICATIONS AND CONTROL GROUP
Table 8 . Inflammatory factors with the comparative patient and the control group
5. Discussion
China CIED implanted patients without clinical infection, the positive probability of pocket culture is about 15% to 33% [5] [7], and the main pathogenic bacteria is a solidishanococcus aureus [6] [8]. Among the 179 patients selected in this study, the positive results were positive in 25 cases (14.0%), and the results of other studies.Nearly, suggesting that there is no symptoms of pocket infections, accounting for considerable proportion of clinical, should be concerned. The bacteria in which the bloody bag culture in this study is the most probe, which accounted for 76.0% of the total number, which is basically consistent with other studies [5] [6], and further clarify the negative grapes of solidiffesease The main pathogenic effects of Sococcus in infection in subclinical pockets. This study believes that gender is male, long-term application of antiplatelet drugs, using antibiotics in the first three months of 10 days for independent risk factors for non-symptoms infection. Male patients more prone to CIED-related infections have been made to clinical research. [9], Johanson et al., The large-scale clinical study of Johanson, and the male is independent risk factors for CIED infection. Research on Lekkerkerker [10], etc., the oral anti-condensant increased the chance of infection after CIED surgery, and it was speculated that the probability of postoperative pockets was increased. In the study of Ammar Habid, [11], anti-platelery drug applications can reduce the probability of fracturing biomass in pacemaker wires. Therefore, the use of anti-platelet drugs on the effects of asymptomatic bladder infection is still to be discussed. This research statistically applied antibiotics in the first three months to increase the probability of no symptoms infection infection. Domestic research [7] has also reported that there is a postal use of antibiotics to increase pockets without symptom infection. However, the reason is not clear, and it is speculated that it may be related to the disorder of the flora. Pichlmaier [12] uses bacterial DNA detection technology to sequencing CIED devices, and draws the inclusion of the detection rate of bacterial DNA that is a bacterial DNA for the surface of CIED. The influence of long-range antibiotics in the long-range antibiotic infection in the operation, there is still a major study to confirm.
In the 60-month follow-up, one of patients with positive positive positive positive positive pockets infected 41 months and returned to the hospital, which accounted for all pockets. 4% of positive patients, cultured pathogenic bacteria as aureus (a solidified group), and the culture negative group did not report CIED-related infection. This result is similar to a number of clinical studies. Kleemann [6] and other people’s research medium pocket cultivation positive group in the median follow-up period of 203 days infection is 7.5% (3 people / 40 people), infectionThe bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus (2 cases of staphylococcus aureus, 1 case of golden staphylococci), and consistent with the pathogenic bacteria cultured in front of the bag. Chua JD [5] and other studies have shown that in patients with a median time of 8 weeks, patients with negative pockets have no infection, while 15 patients with positive positive patients have occurred (6.7%) pocket infection. , Infected pathogeneous bacteria is austectase negative Staphylococcus. This study also confirmed that asymptomatic pocket infections, especially the symptoms infected with staphylococcus, have a more obvious correlation with delayed pocket infection.
In most cases, the increase in inflammatory factors is related to infection, but the inflammatory factors do not have good specificity. CRP can rise under the infection, or in surgery, it is high in autoimmune disease, not strong [13]. Cell factors such as IL-1, IL-6 Although plasma concentrations in patients with bacterial infection increase, but also received regulation of systemic immune status [15]. In contrast, PCT shows better specificity of bacterial infection [19] [20] [21], its negative predictive value is high, there are a number of patients who believe that PCT negative patients, bacterial infections are not large, However, in patients with cirrhosis, cardiogenic shock and low blood pressure and wounded bleeding shock, PCT is also observed [17] [22], which has a certain effect on its specificity. CIED replacement patients inevitably in stress, so inflammatory response activation, integral inflammatory factor level increase is understandable. Elevated inflammatory factors, there is no difference between the pocket culture and the negative group, suggesting that the application of inflammatory factors predicting the infection infection infection infection. In order to solve this problem, it has been studied [18] to associate the multi-gene sequencing of blood and pouch specimens with inflammatory factor detection, suggesting that gene sequencing means and inflammatory factors can be combined in the future, screening CIED-related subclinical infections. For patients with delayed CIED infection between follow-up, new clinical studies can be designed in the future, and the inflammatory factors can continue to monitor inflammatory factors during long-term follow-up period after surgery, assess whether the inflammatory factor level after the surgery stress has retired. Delayed pocket infection. Fund Project Project Name: Capital Characteristic Clinical Application Research Achievements and Promotion. Quest ID: Z171100001017203. Ethical license statement
The study has obtained the corresponding ethical license. NOTES
Voigt, A., Shalaby, A., SABA, S., ET Al. (2006) Rising Rates of Cardiac Rhythm Management Device Infections in The United States: 1996 THROUGH 2003. Journal of Thane American college of Cardiology, 48, 590-591.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2006.05.016
Baddour, LM, Bettmann, MA, BOLGER, AF, ET Al. (2003) NonvalVular Cardiovascular Device-Related Infections. Circulation, 108, 2015-2031.
https: inexpanies
TARAKJI, KG, CHAN, EJ, Cantillon, DJ, Doonan, Al, Hu, T., Schmitt, S., Fraser, TG, KIM, A., Gordon, Sm and Wilkoff, BL (2010) Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Presentation, Management, And Patient Outcomes. Heart Rhythm, 7, 1043-1047.
https://doi.org/ 10.1016 / j.hrtHM.2010.05.016
[5]
Chua, JD, Abdul-Karim, A., Mawhorter, S., Procop, GW, Tchou, P., Niebauer, M., Saliba, W., . Schweikert, R. and Wilkoff, BL (2005) The Role of Swab and Tissue Culture in the Diagnosis of Implantable Cardiac Device Infection Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 28, 1276-1281
Kleemann, T., Becker, T., Strauss, M., et al. (2010) Prevalence of bacterial colonization of generator Pockets in IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR PATIENTS WITHOUT SIGNS OF Infection Undergoing Generator Replacement Or Lead Revision. Europace, 12, 58-63.
/Doi.org/10.1093/europace/eup334
[7]
Liu Junpeng, Yang Jiefu, Yan Jiabin, et al. Study on the risk factors of non-symptoms infection in patients with cardiovascular implant electronic instruments [J]. Chinese Journal of Cardiology, 2013 (6)
[9] Lekkerkerker, JC, Van Nieuwkoop, C., Trines, SA, Van Der Bom, JG, Bernards, A., Van de Velde, ET, Bootsma, M., Zeppenfeld, K., JW, JW, BORLEFFS, JW, SCHALIJ, MJ AND VAN ERVEN, L. (2009) Risk Factors and Time Delay Associated with Cardiac Device Infections: Leiden Device Registry. Heart, 95, 715-720.
https://doi.org/ 10.1136/HRT.2008.151985
https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eus292
[14]
Assicot, M., Bohuon, C., Gendrel, D., Raymond, J., Carsin, H. And Guilbaud, J. (1993) High Serum Procalcitonin Concentrations IN PATIENTS WITH SEPSISION INFECTION. THE Lancet, 341, 515-518.
Schuetz, P., Mueller, B. And Trampuz, A. (2007) Serum Procalcitonin For Discrrimination of Blood Contamination from Blom Bloodstream Infection Due To Coagulase-Negative StaphylococoCCi. Infection, 35, 352-355.
Becker, KL, Snider, R. And Nylen, ES (2008) Procalcitonin Assay In Systemic Inflamation, Infection, And Sepsis: Clinical Utility and Limitations. Critical Care Medicine, 36, 941-952.
https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0b013e318165babb
[18]
Schultzle, H., Forster, J. And Superti-Furga, A. (2009) IS Serum Procalcitonin A Reliable Diagnostic Marker in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infeatrics, 168, 117-1124.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-009-1746-3
]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/analysis-of-risk-factors-of-impermaneous-symptoms-of-implantation-of-implantated-cardiac-electronic-devices-predictive-value-of-prognosis-and-inflammatory-factors/feed/0Climate Adaptive City Plan Based on Ecological Civilization Idea
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/climate-adaptive-city-plan-based-on-ecological-civilization-idea/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/climate-adaptive-city-plan-based-on-ecological-civilization-idea/#respondFri, 07 May 2021 00:33:27 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/climate-adaptive-city-plan-based-on-ecological-civilization-idea/1. Introduction
In my country, climate knowledge in the city location, functional layout and housing construction can be traced back to 3,000 years ago [1]. Climate and urban planning, in the vast and long river of history, have been accompanied by, and born, it has created a magnificent scene that has great beauty in the world. Time varies, social progress, especially in the rolling wave of industrial civilization, strong technology, “ignorant”, climate gradually neglected in urban planning and architectural design. The contradiction between people and the environment is constantly appearing, and the urban environment has become a determinant that restricts the sustainable development of cities. Today, we propose the sustainable development of the Chinese nation of ecological civilization, climate and urban planning, and turn to the peak loop, and then renew [2].
From the perspective of archaeological excavation, why the building sites are generally unearthed in the towns, and the area is better than the geographical environment such as mountain borrowing. [3]? Because there is no air conditioning and central heating, people choose to build a city pool, build villages, and the house will naturally consider how to use the existing Tiannian conditions to maximize the advantages of natural, and create disasters. , Convenient, even a comfortable living environment. Pillow mountain, ring water, and Xiangyang’s natural view are fully applied to the location of the city, and the construction of the natural environment is reflected in the construction of the natural environment [4].
This ideology that adapts to the natural environment is consistent in the construction, if detailed interpretation, it will find many scientific truths. The housing is advocating to advocate south of the construction of the basic principles of construction. Due to the north of China, the housing in the north of China can get more light, bringing many benefits to the healthy development of the human body; at the same time, the airport of the building Open in the southeastern part of the Oriental, so that the wind blows into the room and adjusts the room temperature. After the mountain water, there is a mountain after the house, there is a blessed water in front of the house, and there is also a scientific basis. That is, China is located in the north hemisphere. It can make the cold winter wind (northwest wind) is blocked by the mountain, and the water can make the summer wind (Southeast Monsoon and Southwestern monsoon brings cool and moist air through the water in front of the house to achieve the purpose of adjusting the temperature of the site, forming a good microcanopause [2].
Due to science and technology, the climate has not yet formed a science, and it is more unable to explain climate knowledge from the perspective of geophysics, explaining climate phenomena, but the ancients of wisdom have experience andThe awe of awareness, knowing that this unseneful “qi” determines harmony, with indisparable dependencies with the Yingcheng [5], from a modern perspective, is the climate and urban planning.
Climate and urban planning construction is the relationship between complement. As a natural resource, the climate is an important carrier of the city, and the planning and design of a city is based on the local climate environment; and the changes in human activities and lower cushions, and the layout of the building group. They will have different degrees of impact on urban climate environments, thereby changing urban bureaus, affecting the wind environment and thermal environment of the city.
3. High-intensity urban construction on climate
Although the ancients are limited to scientific and technological levels, they pay attention to the natural concept of “the heavens and people”. my country’s ancient urban forms follow local climatic conditions, terrain resources, and build a lot of distinctive urban pattern. Nowadays, technology development has created modern civilization. People use technical means to conquer natural, use natural, transformation nature, and use the intensive spread of urban construction, unordered the urban construction, fast replication, and spirituality, but ignore Self-textive, which is different from natural conditions, leading to thousands of times [2].
More serious is that disorderly, excessive urban construction broke nature constraints, and a large number of artificial buildings replaced the original natural underwarters, causing significant changes in the climate in urban bureaus to make the city The climate comfort is significantly reduced. For example, urban high-density construction and heat sources emissions in human activities have enabled urban air temperature than around the suburbs of the surrounding suburbs, forming “urban heat island”; the buzzer of the squamous squat increases the roughness of the cube surface of the city, reducing the average of the city The wind speed, thereby reducing the air flow efficiency within the city, further strengthening the strength of the heat island, slowing the diffusion of pollutants, and the city people can only “shake hard, self-suction” under the climate conditions of the vicious circle; in addition, the city Most of the surface is concrete, the permeability water storage capacity is weak, so that the water circulation in urban areas is different, and it is easy to hang in the urban rainfall in shortcoming, “watching the sea boating” has become a true portrayal when China’s urban rainstorm occurs. These climate environmental issues caused by urban construction, ultimately affect people’s livelihood and sustainable development of the city.
4. Regain Climate AdaptabilityPlanning
How to meet the needs of urban expansion, and mitigate and even avoid construction of urban climate issues, this is the “key issue” faced by urban planning research in my country. Urban construction and its results are often difficult to reverse, we must hold more cautious attitudes, which makes urban construction more forward-looking and preventive sex [6]. Therefore, in the urban planning construction, you should fully consider the local climate environment background, respect nature, comply with nature, build climate adaptability, and improve urban disaster prevention and mitigation toughness, actively adapt to climate change ability, and create an ecology Having a sustainable urban environment.
To make “urban planning construction, climate assessment first” becomes a consensus, this requires barriers to different disciplines and industries, meteorologists need to launch frequent, fully exchange discussions, in different scales The planning and its various stages should be evaluated, and the feasibility is demonstrated. Whether it is the overall planning or controlled detailed planning, or the street cell and individual building planning design, the climate environmental impact is scientifically evaluated, give quantitative results and response strategies, providing support for urban planning, functional district, environmental protection, etc. Ensure optimizing urban planning layout.
Taking the city form as an example, due to the close relationship between urban form and local small climate, the urban form affects the distribution and intensity of urban heat island, affects urban diffusion capacity, affects the land of the bureau, so the city The shape cannot be artificially expanded, and the urban planning requires “gas-shaped”, optimized green space, wetlands site selection and design according to climatic conditions. Taking a sponge city as an example, the core mission is to improve the penetration, savings, purification, utilization and emission capability of precipitation; only the average water can reduce the average water, drizzle, how to reduce, the later plan, design, Construction can be scientific and reasonable, and the entire system can play a role, and the real “sponge” function can be realized.
5. For the urban amount of body temperature, the urban construction is like the texture of the nature, even if nature itself has purification, regulatory ability, and excessive development will eventually exceed its bearing boundaries It will slowly heal more than the skin smaller, but if it is a large area of burns, if it is not treated, the skin will inflammation and ulce. At present, the climate environmental problem arising from the city is to signal people, and the heat island effect indicates the city.Burning, quiet and weak wind indicates that the city’s breathing is not smooth, and the rainstorm shows that the urban digestion is not good.
In order to alleviate, improved and even the urban climate brought by the urban climate, the Beijing Climate Center joint relevant agencies have set up the “urban climate assessment and innovation team”, integrating the wisdom of the sage, learn from international experience. Combined with modern technology, advocate and promote the concept of urban planning based on climate adaptability and the ecological environment; promote climate assessment into urban development plan, consider local climate environments in the whole process of urban planning, avoiding or mitigating the implementation of planning projects Affected by meteorological disasters and climate change, as well as negative feedback on the local climate.
In the past decade, the team integrates climatology, urban planning, ecology and other disciplines, and gives full play to meteorological observation, climate analysis, numerical simulation, urban planning, remote sensing, and geographic information. Advantages of technology, for urban heat island, urban ventilation, heavy rain, etc., forming scientific quantitative urban climate effect assessment technology systems, effectively promoting innovation of urban planning technology in my country, and applied in numerous urban planning in China, for my country Urban Planning Actively Adair to Ecological Civilization Construction Creation Create a new entry point, which has effectively guaranteed urban ecological and sustainable development, which has produced significant ecological and environmental benefits.
6. Creating a breathing city
“Urban Ventilation Corridor” is a topic in urban planning in urban planning, and its planning technology is one of the main research results of the team. . Urban construction and human activities have produced a large number of heat sources. At the same time, the intensive buildings have weakened the air circulation capacity in the city. The heat is constantly produced, but the air dirt is not effective in exchange, so that the city is slightly formed to form a vicious circle. At this time, the concept of constructing a city ventilation corridor is born, but it has also triggered the misreading of the public “blowing fog”, in fact, in fact, solving the roasting of smog is the governance of the pollution source, and cannot be sent to the original.
What is “urban ventilation corridor”? The team gives an interpretation: urban ventilation corridor refers to the initial climate analysis, combined with urban land and layout in the plan, such as natural ventilation in the city, such as rivers, lakes, valleys, and Artificially established green space, water body, and city main road, the purpose is to enhance urban air fluidity and promoteSuburban air exchange, thereby playing the role of easeing urban heat island, reducing building energy consumption, improving urban lifetime [7] [8].
Through scientific, reasonable planning ventilation corridor system, the lack of slabs and ecological functions of urban build land can be prevented, which is beneficial to maintain the development of soil and animal and plant ecosystems; Land protection, connect, to ensure the land useful to improve the climatic conditions of the city bureau, to the beginning of planning, legally protective and construction; finally integrate water, green, fresh air into an ecological network, enhance the overall transceiver of the city Sexual and climate comfort.
The urban ventilation corridor system is like a leaf, and it is independent, and it is a system. It is a system, there is a multi-level integration, the first-class “ventilation”, the secondary “air-to-air”, three levels ” String. From the urban landscape, the main direction of the leaves is the first-class ventilation corridor, complying with the local dominant wind direction, mainly playing the wind, introducing the fresh air of the lake in the lake in the city into the city. In the city, the wind is like a leaf conteyl, and the wind is better introduced into various groups inside the city. It plays a fluid-fluidity to prevent urban heat island, and the use of “slabs”; to the city design level, through the block Reserved leaf vein texture such as reasonable layout, architectural displacement, so that fresh air can benefit more.
How to build a city’s ventilation corridor? The team has formed a more mature technical system: first, where is the wind, this needs to analyze the local annual dominant, season wind, mountain valley wind, water, and the wind, where is the wind, that is, the city wind environment Evaluate the heat environment, understand the urban small wind zone and the hot island gathering area; finally look for urban context, identifies the strip-shaped area in the city through the ventilation potential assessment technology, combined with urban planning layout, and build a reasonable ventilation corridor Connect the city’s ecological cold sources, run through urban small wind zones and heat island districts; in order to enhance local air circulation, divide urban heat island, prevent heat island exacerbating and continuous development.
The team is clearly stated that the ventilation corridor is constructed is not a big demolition. The ventilation corridor is based on respect for the city’s existing pattern, and it is delineated in terms of local conditions. In response to the existing ventilation and environment of the city, it is necessary to protect and repair; the area of the ventilation corridor will be kept to maintain space, reserve and increase ecological land, control construction scale, building height, density, and exclusiveThe key node that is not conducive to corridors, combined with urban functional discovery and comprehensive management, gradually updated.
), this is also a result of two years of results crystallization. Through the comprehensive assessment of Beijing wind, hot environment, ventilation potential, and numerical simulation and field observations for representative regions, verify the improvement of the local meteorological environment; and multiple times and planning department, eventually in the center of Beijing The urban area has been delineated 5 levels of ventilation corridors and more than 10 secondary ventilated corridors [9]. The landing implementation of research results is undoubtedly inspiring, which indicates that climate assessment is recognized in urban planning, adopted, and will further inherit and develop in the future.
Fund Project National Key Research Development Program (2018YFB1502801), Beijing Science and Technology Plan (Z161100002716028), Beijing Meteorological Bureau Science and Technology Project (BMBKJ201901011) and Beijing Meteorological Bureau “new era The hierarchical technology innovation talent program is jointly funded. Notes
*
Corresponding author.
Zeng Zhongzhong. Ancient China based on climate adaptability City Morphology [J] .China University of Science and Technology, 2011 (7): 15-20. ^{ }
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House Xiaoyi, Yang Ruzi, Du Wupeng, et al. Climate and Urban Planning [M]. Beijing: Meteorological Publishing House, 2018.
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[8] Baddour, LM, Epstein, AE, ERICKSON, CC, ET AL. (2010) Update on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections and Their Management: a Scientific Statement from The American Heart AssociCirculation, 121, 458-477.
Pichlmaier, M., Marwitz, V., Kuhn, C., et al. (2008) High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacterial Colonization of rhythm Management Devices. Europace, 10, 1067-1072. https://doi.org/10.1093/euroPace/EUN191
Pepys, MB, Hirschfield, GM, Pepys, MB and Hirschfield, GM (2003) C-Reactive Protein: a critical Update. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, 1805 -1812. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci200318921
XING, Z., GAULDIE, J., COX, G., Baumann, H., Jordana, M., Lei, XF and Achong, MK (1998) IL- 6 IS ANAntiinflammatory Cytokine Required for Controlling Local or Systemic Acute Inflammatory Responses. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 101, 311-320.
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Zhu Shaojun. Talking about the theory of integrity in the style of the ancient city – Taking the overall plan of urban landscape style in Shaxian as an Example [J]. Low Carbon World, 2017 (33):
Seasonal Wen Mei. The impact of Feng Shui concept on China’s traditional architecture site selection and layout [J] .Journal of Hefei College (Natural Science Edition), 2008 , 18 (2): 69-71.
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Liu Yuyu, Shen Jizhuang. Method for urban ventilation in the local circulation – in Germany Example [J]. Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Edition), 2010 (10): 1985-1991.
Ren Chao, Yuan Chao, He Zhengjun, et al. Urban ventilation corridor research and its planning application [J] .Journal of Urban Planning, 2014 (3): 52-60.
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]]>https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/07/climate-adaptive-city-plan-based-on-ecological-civilization-idea/feed/0Application of Digital Thoogenesis System in Pulmonary Bronchial pleural fistula treatment
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/application-of-digital-thoogenesis-system-in-pulmonary-bronchial-pleural-fistula-treatment-2/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/application-of-digital-thoogenesis-system-in-pulmonary-bronchial-pleural-fistula-treatment-2/#respondThu, 06 May 2021 00:12:04 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/application-of-digital-thoogenesis-system-in-pulmonary-bronchial-pleural-fistula-treatment-2/1. Preface
Bronchial pleural fistula (BPF, Bronchopleural fistula) refers to a fistula formed between the alveoli, the bronchial and pleural cavity. In recent years, although pulmonary resection surgery has improved and improved, the broncho pleural fistula (BPF, Bronchopleural Fistula) is still serious complications that may occur after pulmonary resection. The literature reported that the incidence of BPF was 1.5% to 12.5% in full pulmonary resection, and the incidence rate was 0.5% to 3% after pulmonary leaf removal. The relevant risk factors included bronchial residual tumors, and the residue was too long. , Diabetes, steroids, new auxiliary chemotherapy or radiotherapy, infection, etc. According to reports, the related mortality rate is high, up to 71% [2]. The correct treatment is the most important after diagnosis. Although the death rate is high, it is undeniable that BPF has self-healing, although it is just a report. In recent years, with the continuous development of science and technology, the drainage system is also constantly improving. The new type of digital chest drainage system can greatly compensate for the low pressure level, unstable and insufficient convenience of traditional drainage bottles, with negative pressure adjustable, digital, visualization, full monitoring, easy to carry and real-time monitoring pipes. The advantages of smooth, close, etc., there is currently a literature report and clinical guidance to confirm that digital drainage systems can be applied to the treatment of continuously refractory leakage after pulmonary surgery [3], this study group is for the above situation, using digital drainage systems Oversized negative pressure suction value (50 cm h _{ 2 } o water column pressure), visualization chart and quantitative detection recording function [4] The initial results will be reported as follows.
2. Materials and Methods
2. The subject
30 patients with pneumatic pleural fistula.
2.2. Selection of cases and treatment
This is a retrospective and descriptive study. The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University has a total of 30 patients from 1 to 2022, 2012. There are 18 cases of traditional groups, which use conventional chest closing drainage, drainage liquid ≤ 150 ml / d, and gas-free . Digital group 12 cases application DDS conduct drainage treatment, the age, gender, resection of lungs in 2 groups, pathological types, etc. have no statistical significance, see
Table 1
. All patients were diagnosed with bronchi pleural fistula under tracheir mirror or chest CT examination. The visibility of the imaging, and the fistula can directly find the fistula residual cavity, visible liquid plane, which is a new month and can be seen. The residual fistula, chest closed drainage leaks. The bronchial pleural fistula should be focused on the as early as possible, which has been reported that the endoscopic sealing fistula has shown the exact effect under the fistula having less than 5 mm, but the presence is poorly compatible with human tissue, and easy to fall off. Risks, especially those with infection [5]. Some patients have passed gas mirror inspection, endoscopic lavage treatment, and poor body state, ECOG score 3 points, secondary surgical risk is high, no surgery. Our experience and conservative treatment, after communicating with patients and their families, signed an informed consent, and select closed drainage conservative treatment.
Chest drain tube and Thopaz Digital Thoracic closed drainage system (Medele Medela, Switzerland), digital drainage system device has functions that record patient numbers, adjust and record attractive negative pressure, drainage speed, while the drainage is full, system leaks, system blocking, drainage A alarm feedback can be issued when the filter is blocked and the system is exhausted. Set a negative pressure pressure -15 cm H
O, set the tube indicate to the discharge liquid ≤ 300 ml / d, and / or the amount of air leak ≤ 20 mL / h, lasting 8 h. When ensuring good chest tube, adjust the negative pressure to the maximum value of patient tolerance, early sufficient drainage, according to the patient’s comfort. Adjustment. It is ensured that providing a stable negative pressure value in the chest, and the degree of lung resequence determines the timing of the pleural fixation. If the patient is subjected to an obvious gemosphere or apermatoma, it is necessary to observe the absorption of vaporization while determining the drainage. For uncertainty, whether the lungs and chest wall bonders are selected, according to the patient’s condition, the chest CT is selected, and after the exact position of the chest drainage tube is observed, the negative pressure parameters are adjusted in time according to the drainage effect, early lungs Good compliance, after the digital drainage is negatively attracted, the lung part is rejected, the lung tissue is attached, the cavity is reduced, and the cavity is separated, limited to the purpose of eliminating the cavity. Observe the patient’s vital signs, drainage flow, drainage volume and color, observe the reasons in the chest and the changes in the residual cavity, and adjust the position of the tube position and the inception of the chest in time according to the drainage condition. When the patient’s 24-hour flow is less than 2,000 ml / min, the drainage volume is less than 400 mL, the drainage is clear, yellowish yellow, no infection, the negative pressure is adjusted to -8 ~ 12 cm h
2
O, continue Conservative treatment for a while. Observing the patient’s vital signs, the drainage flow is less than 40 ml / min [7], even the interruption has no air leaks, the drainage liquid is less than 100 mL, the drainage is clear, yellowish yellow, first adjust the depth, to the body surface Drainage tube. When the lungs in the chest are well, there is no residual empty hole, there is no obvious air leak when there is no obvious effusion, and there is no obvious leakage when coughing, and the chest drainage tube is removed.
2.4. Observation Index and Analysis
_{ Collect all cases related clinical data. Dynamically observe the size of the lumen in the chest and the flow rate of digital drainage devices and the changes of drainage fluids. Compare the air leakage time, tube time, hospitalization time, etc. in the two groups. } 2.5. Statistical treatment _{ } Application statistics software (SPSS 26.0Method software) line data analysis description. The quantitative data of normal distribution takes independent sample T test, the qualitative data is tested by χ _{ 2 }, the inspection level D = 0.05, P
3. Result
3.1. General Situation
30 patients with delayed bronchone pleura fistula were successfully treated by conservative drainage. The white blood cells have decreased significantly, and the body temperature returns to normal. Correct low-proteinummia, the pleural effusion gas is completely discharged, the residual cavity disappears, confirmed under the tracheoscope, and the broncho pleural fistula is completely healing. Follow-up for these cases, currently recovered, and the residual lungs completely recovered, no bronchi pleural fistula recurring.
3.2. Observation Indicators
^{ See } Table 2 < 0.05为差异有统计学意义。
, digital group chest drainage time, recovery time and hospital stay are shorter than traditional groups. Tube drainage time [34.00 ± 6.700 Vs 57.83 ± 8.313, P = 0.049], healed [36.33 ± 7.025 VS 61.33 ± 8.507, P = 0.045], hospitalization time [33.25 ± 5.619 vs 49.06 ± 5.030, P = 0.048].
Table 2
. Observation Indexes of the Two Groups Were Compared Table 2
. 2 sets of observation indicators Comparative
3.3. Drug applications and nursing experience 1) Respiratory management: give atomization, mechanical assistance Early periodically, early encouragement and assist patient cough and deep breathing, so that the pleural cavity gas and liquid are discharged, enabling the lungs, eliminating the residual cavity, preventing excessive accumulation of excess and induces bronchial pleural fistula. Infection. For patients with weak weakness and sputum viscous, the active bronchoscopic lens is active to ensure the drainage of the chest closed drainage tube. 2) Nutrition support: patients with thoracic surgery due to bleeding, seepage, infection(Puzzle) and other reasons cause a large amount of protein, which is easy to distinguish an anastomosis, affecting healing. Postoperative guidance patients eat high-protein diet that can eat nutrients. For patients with exudation, intravenous support, infusion of plasma, albumin, etc., improve the nutritional status of the patient. 3) Anti-infective treatment: According to the color of the drain liquid and the nature combined with pleural effusion, the antibiotic is adjusted in time, and some long-term strap patients cultivate bacteria, fungi, and pass through antibacterial therapy, complete control. 4) Appropriate psychological counseling to help improve patients’ bad mood and emotions.
4. Discussion
Bronchial pleural fistula is a severe complication after pulmonary resection. According to the time limit of the occurrence, the habit of dividing BPF is early ( 30 days) [8]. Early fistile is more surgical techniques; if the mid-term fistula is not a missed diagnosis, it is more related to systemic factors. Due to the absence of bronchial pleural fistula, the drainage is not smooth, infection cannot be effectively controlled, and the postoperative bronchial pleural fistula and the refractory persistence of the refractory persistence have many adverse effects on the patient, mainly to increase the risk of other complications, extended Draw time and hospital stay, this undoubtedly also increases the patient’s spirit and economic burden. The principle of treatment is to control infection, drain the pleural effusion, and promote lung function recovery. Fully drain is the most basic conservative treatment. Most published papers involve endoscopy and surgical treatment. Summary experience and conservative treatment, reference digital drainage devices. The traditional drainage system is typically composed of a chest drainage tube and a water seal bottle, and a negative pressure of 16 cm H 2 O, but this drainage device is limited to postoperative patient activity [9] [10 ] At the same time, it also produces a large noise affecting the patient’s rest due to bubbles in the water seal bottle. For a large amount of long-lasting and lung failure after surgery, it is clinically used to encourage cough and blow bar to promote the pulmonary inflation, and create conditions for subsequent pleural effusion; or wait for a chest The method of fixed cavity is reached with the tubing conditions. However, the above methods have a shortcomibility of time consumption, and the patient’s quality of life is seriously limited. With the development of science and technology, drainage systems are constantly improving. Digital drainage devices are not subject to physical level, convenient placement, easy to observe and operate data, light weight, easy to carry liquidity, promote wound healing, and speed up the bed turnover [11]. RememberAccurately, eliminate the differences in subjective judgment, unified doctors, nurses, and even the record standards of patients, adjustments according to the recording results. The traditional drain bottle water seal bottle should be lower than the drainage tube, prevent the retrograde infection, keep the drainage tube, properly solve, prevent accidental prolapse, need to place the rough tube, the patient is obvious, can not lie down, water seal bottle needs regular Replacement, negative pressure must be provided by the bed, negative pressure is unstable, and greatly affects the position of the body affects the body, the relevant care step is complex, the drainage is treated, and the pollution is high. Digital drainage systems are safer, more efficient, more comfortable, more accurate, and more convenient. Compare the traditional water seal via, the specific advantages are as follows: 1) Digital drainage system has an automatic flushing function, which is not easy to block the pipe, there is an automatic alarm function. Easy to carry, disposable sterile packaging, drainage bottle devices and unique enclosures, easy to close, easy to use. 2) Negative pressure self-sufficiency, adjustable, drainage, and accelerate lung function recovery. Continuous negative pressure attracts the smoothness of the drainage, continuous and accurate negative pressure attraction: continuous negative pressure plays a key role in improving the exclusion of thoracic fluid gas, which is conducive to the expansion of postoperative lungs, eliminating After the increase in the negative pressure in the chest, the key unfavorable factors increased by the extension, such as the increasing drainage is insufficient, and the thin tube can be placed in the second rib between the clavicle centerline and can be connected to the Y-type joint tube. In addition, avoid fluctuations in chest pressure, avoid frequent airflow through fistula, chest gas is an important factor that causes lungs, and the greater the fluctuations of chest pressure, the longer the bronchial and lung wounds. The DDS system maintains accurate negative pressure levels, thoroughly improving the fluctuation of chest pressure, so it is conducive to reducing the leakage of lung wounds, promoting the wounds and toromers. The adjustable negative pressure is close to the target negative pressure, ensuring the integral controlled, real-time data, facilitating observation and tube consensus and guidelines based on digital controllability and objectivity. 3) The digitization group can be placed on the back of 12F, reducing pain, affecting the patient, can lie down, protect good rest sleep, affected by the body position, can be normal, patient after surgery, patient after surgery Gradually normalization, traditional water seal bottles do not meet the patient while underlying activities, the continuous negative pressure attraction is guaranteed; the installation is convenient, reducing the workload of nursing staff, reducing the replacement of the drainage [12] [13]. 4) Nursing during the treatment of traditional chest closed drainagePersonnel will squeeze the drainage tube, check whether the pipe is blocked, but during the extrusion process, the pain can cause positive pressure because of pain, cough, the sink, so that the liquid flowing out is filling the chest, Causes the occurrence of complications such as infection. DDS belongs to an adjustable attraction, an active drainage system, which reduces the risk of infection to a certain extent.
After 12 patients applied digital drainage devices, the drainage was smooth, infected, the residual cavity disappeared, the leakage volume was reduced, and the fistula was smaller. Basic cure within 1 to 2 months. Observe the patient’s vital signs, drainage flow, drainage volume and color. According to the condition, it is required to regularly review the chest CT to observe the changes in the residual cavity in the chest. The residual lungs, reverse, deformation, and fitting, eliminating residual cavity and acceleration healing. As a result, the total time of the digital drainage device to treat bronchial pleura fistula is 36.33 ± 7.025 d, and the treatment time (3 to 6 months or even longer time) is significantly shortened than those of the literature. The application of digitized drainage devices can be discharged from hospital and do not have to stay in hospital. Perform regular follow-up examination, no bronchial pleural fistula recurrence. Patients with bronchial pleural fistula occurred after 12 patients of the digitization of the digitization, and achieve extubation and discharge in the time of the average treatment cycle after negative pressure induced by the DDS, to reduce the economic burden and spiritual burden for patients. Since the broncho pleural fistula is a rare complication after pulmonary surgery, the total number of patients with broncho pleural fistula is less, and the past documents and clinical empirical demonstrates their feasibility and superiority. According to the data contrast and total drainage days before and after using DDS drainage The relevant information can still reflect the advantages of DDS active high negative pressure suction drainage systems in such cases. Combined with existing DDS and conventional drainage method for randomized controlling clinical study of broncho pleural fistula (
), digital group cranked rate reached 100%, we have more adequate evidence to use DDS The drainage of patients with bronchone pleura fistula is a clinical reference value. Chen Yuxi [12] reported that the use of digital drainage devices for the treatment of pulmonary persistence, and has also achieved good clinical efficacy, indicating that digital pleural drainage systems are used for the treatment of post-delayed broncho pleural fistula after pulmonary surgery, Accelerated bronchial pleural fistula patients rehabilitation discharge.
Table 3
. Comparison of Curative Effect Between Digital System and Traditional Conservation Drainage In Patients with Bronchopleural Fistula
Table 3 _{. Conditions in therapeutic mode of digital system and traditional conservative drainage in patients with broncho pleural fistula }
NA: NOT AVAILABLE (Description: 2 cases of traditional groups in our school have neared, long-term belongings Regular drug transfer; 1 patient was died due to tumor recurrence, not included in Table 1 ,
Table 2
analysis).
Conservative treatment of bronchial pleural fistula after pulmonary leaf removal is a safe and effective method, and another feasible treatment in terms of endoscopy, surgical surgery. method. Digital pleural drainage system is used for safety after pulmonary delayed broncho pleural fistula, providing a greater and more sustained negative pressure attraction value, thereby promoting lung replenishment, smooth drainage, avoiding infection, and shortening the number of drainage days and hospital stay. In summary, the accelerated rehabilitation of patients with delayed bronchial pleural fistula after thoracic mirror has a positive significance. DDS is a safe, minimally invasive, effective, visualized treatment for the treatment of BPF, which is worth further promotion.
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https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/application-of-digital-thoogenesis-system-in-pulmonary-bronchial-pleural-fistula-treatment-2/feed/0Diagnostic value of different serum diagnostic models on liver fibrosis
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/diagnostic-value-of-different-serum-diagnostic-models-on-liver-fibrosis-2/
https://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/diagnostic-value-of-different-serum-diagnostic-models-on-liver-fibrosis-2/#respondThu, 06 May 2021 00:12:04 +0000http://www.xiaolun.vip/index.php/2021/05/06/diagnostic-value-of-different-serum-diagnostic-models-on-liver-fibrosis-2/1. Introduction
Liver fibrosis (LF) is a pathological reaction of abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which is a key step of chronic liver disease is cirrhosis or even liver cancer. [1]. my country is a large country of liver disease, hepatitis B virus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, etc. is common pathogenic factors in liver fibrosis. Studies have shown that timely diagnosis and clinical intervention can shorten the process of liver fibrosis, and early liver fibrosis can even reverse [2] [3]. The “gold standard” of hepatic fibrosis is a puncture biopsy, due to its honesty and repetitiveness, it is difficult to monitor the monitoring means of monitoring changes in liver fibrosis [1]. Non-invasive diagnostic criteria of hepatic fibrosis becomes a hot spot in the current research.
This study retrospectively collects various liver diseases require surgical resection of serological examination results, calculates four free serum diagnostic models, and evaluates four models for different fibrosis.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. General Information
Retrospectively Collection of Qingdao University Affiliated Hospital June 2019 Liver Obstruction After December 2019, accurate liver fiber 272 patients with pathological installments. Among them, 197 men, an average age of 53.1 ± 13.3; 75 females, an average age of 47.3 ± 14.8. All patient serological examination results were obtained before surgery and were taken. This study has been licensed by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University.
2.2. Serum Diagnostic Model Calculation
Aspartte Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index, Apri γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase to Platelet Ratio, GPR), Fibrosis Index Based On The Four Factors, FIB-4) and AST / Alt ratio (AST / Alt)Ratio, AAR) The calculation formula is as follows:
AAR
=
AST U L ) / ( U / [4] APRI = AST / ULN
×
1 00 / PLT 1 / ) FIB-4 = years ) AST ( / (
1 0 9 / / L ) / U ) 1 / [5] (3) GPR = ( / ULN ) × PLT ( 9 / L [5] 2.3. Hepatic fibrosis stage according to Chinese Medical Association [6] Liver fibrosis is divided into five issues: ≥ S1 is defined as liver fibrosis, ≥S2 is significant fibrosis, ≥S3 is progressive liver fibrosis, ≥S4 is cirrhosis, specific staging standard See Table 1 . Table 1 . Staging criteria of liver fibrosis
Table 1 . Hepatic fibrosis stages Statistical analysis Calculate patient clinical and serological characteristics using SPSS23.0. Use independent sample T test comparison measurement, χ 2 Check the comparison count data, compare the use of single factors ANOVA test, use the ROC curve and the curve to evaluate the diagnostic ability of serum diagnosis model, Delong test detection ROC curve. P The patient’s clinical parameters are statistically significant, and the age is statistically significant. Serological indicators are also meaningful during five divisions, and patients have clinical serological characteristics [ Table 2 . Four serological diagnostic models based on clinical and serological indicators Apri, GPR, FIB-4, and AAR identification of different packet liver fibrosis, such as Table 3 , APRI, GPR, FIB-4 The difference between the four groups is meaningful, and the difference between AAR in any group is not statistically significant. Table 2 . Clinical sErological Characteristics Of Different Stages Of Hepatic Fibrosis . Clinical serological characteristics of different liver fibrosis Table 3 . Serum Models of Different Groups of Liver Fibrosis Table 3 . Different liver Serum model for different packets of liver fibrosis, we use ROC curves to analyze the diagnostic effects of APRI, GPR, FIB-4 serum diagnosis model. For ≥S1, ≥S2, ≥S3 and ≥S4 four groups, APRI, GPR, FIB-4 have better diagnostic efficacy, where FIB-4 performance is optimal, AUC ranges (0.811 ~ 0.960), for ≥ The S1 period is the best diagnosis, AUC reaches 0.960, and the critical value is 0.850 in the maximum value (0.814), which is shown in FIB-4 Table 4 . The ROC curve of the serum model of different packets is shown in FIG. 1 , the Delong checkp is less than 0.05. Table 4 . ROC CURVE Analysis of Serum Models in Different Groups of Liver Fibrosis . ROC curve analysis of serum model of different liver fibrosis 4. Discussion Hepatic fibrosis is the liver Due to the pathological repair reactions of excessive deposition of extracellular matrices in various pathogenic factors, there are many disease factors.Diverse [1] [7]. Common for chronic hepatitis virus infection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, etc., liver fibrosis is a key step in the progression of chronic liver disease is cirrhosis [7] [8]. At present, the diagnosis of “gold standard” of liver fibrosis is the liver puncture biopsy, but there is a complication after puncture surgery and the price is expensive, and it is difficult to carry out multiple times. Therefore, clinical urgent needs of a non-invasive, repeatable liver fibrosis assessment method [9] [10].
Serum markers commonly used in hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct markers and indirect markers [11] [12]. Direct markers include hyaluronic acid, HA), laminin, LNs, and study show that the direct markers of liver fibrosis are positively correlated with the level of liver fibrosis [13]. Indirect markers such as platelet counts, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, etc., can reflect liver cell damage, indirect reaction liver fibrosis. However, the above serum marker indicators are affected by their own metabolism. When other organ injuries can cause the level of these markers, the limits of the liver are low [9] [14].
Sun Yawei, Wu Xiaoning, Zhou Bi Le Ling, et al. Discussion on the method of evaluation method of chronic hepatitis B hepatic fibrosis [ J] Chinese Liver Disease Journal, 2016, 24 (7): 552-554.
Ding Deping, Liu Ping, Chen Linli, et al. Fibroscan, AAR, APRI, FIB-4 and its joint application diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B The meaning of value [J]. Chinese and Western Medicine Combination Liver Disease Journal, 2016, 26 (5): 267-269 + 286.
[10] Stibbe, KJM, Verveer, C., Francke, J., et al. (2011) Comparison of Non-Invasive Assess to Diagnose Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B and C Patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 46, 962-972.
[11]
Kong Mengjuan, Zhou Xian, Luo Xiaoqing. Meta analysis of HCV hepatic fibrosis diagnosis efficiency [J]. Zhejiang Medical, 2019, 41 (8): 795-801.
Liu Ting, Xu Mingyi. Progress in serological diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis [J] .Journal of Practical Liver Disease, 2016, 19 (1) : 125-128.
Lemoine, M., Shimakawa, Y, Nayagam, S., et al. (2016) The gamma -Glutamyl transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio (GPR) Predicts Significant Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection in West Africa. Gut, 65, 1369-1376. < 0.850时可以排除肝纤维化。一项研究认为 [15]，GPR比APRI和FIB-4更准确，可以用于肝纤维化分期。张旭 [5] 等研究表明联合APRI、FIB-4在内的五种血清模型诊断肝纤维化的性能与病理结果趋近。这些诊断模型大多为慢性乙型肝炎或慢性丙型肝炎所致肝纤维化样本，目前对每种模型的临界值尚未达成一致 [6]。
https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl -2015-309260
^{ } Nakamura, Y., Fukuhara, T., Aikata, H., et al. (2017) Liver Fibrosis Assassment by Fibroscan Compared with pathology, 48, 767-772.